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 Expert  108224

Expert in Hydrometallurgy, Pyrometallurgy, and Extraction and Recycling of Metal-Containing Raw Materials

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Colorado (CO)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has in-depth experience on molybdenum recovery and rhenium recovery (includes six patents and papers): pressure leaching of molybdenite (molybdenum disulfide) concentrates, ammonium dimolybdate (ADM) production, preparing MoS2 lubricant, deoiling molybdenite, and upgrading molybdenite by leaching. Other plant experience includes MoS2 roasting; sublimation of molybdic oxide; ammonium perrhenate production; solvent extraction, purification, and crystallization; spent catalyst recycling; and production of specialty molybdenum chemicals (molybdenum salt recovery; rhenium salt recovery).

catalyst recycling


molybdenum disulfide


molybdenum recovery


rhenium recovery

Expert led the Amax research group that developed technology for producing ammonium paratungstate (APT), commercialized at Ft. Madison, Iowa. He developed a process to recover ammonium metavanadate (AMV) and nickel from petroleum coke, recovered MoVNiCo from spent catalyst, and assisted an aircraft manufacturer in procuring vanadium tetrachloride, including evaluation of producer capabilities. Expert holds 12 papers and patents related to either tungsten or vanadium recovery or purification.

tungsten recovery

Expert has worked at numerous slagging hazardous waste incineration operations, generally on problems involving either eliminating or enhancing slag formation, vitrification of sludge or metal-rich residues, and processing flue dust. He is expert in controlling slag deposition in incinerator, afterburner, and quench systems. He has served three times as an expert witness on matters related to slag formation, production, uses, and environmental stability. He is also experienced with aggregate production from hazardous wastes; production of blasting grit, abrasive, and shingle granules; and vitrification of sewage sludge and marketing products therefrom.

slag abrasive


slag metal recovery





Expert is expert in manufacturing, raw material procurement, and marketing Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu fertilizer and animal micronutrients. He works in plants producing these micronutrients, and also performs in-depth marketing studies.

animal micronutrient



Expert is expert on recycling spent circuit-board etchant, including production of CuO, CuSO4-5H2O, copper cathode, and regenerated etchant from these materials. He is on a first-name basis with North American recyclers of spent plating wastes, etchants, and printed circuit boards.

etchant recycling


printed circuit board recycling

Expert's copper experience includes smelting and leaching of copper ores, concentrates, and scrap; rotary furnace production of brass and bronze; deleading of water valve surfaces; Cu recovery from spent catalyst and etchant; production of CuOx, CuSO4, and CuClx; finding "homes" for copper wastes in smelter and conversion operations; solvent extraction (electrowinning) to metal or salts; and production of copper micronutrients.

brass recycling


brass waste


bronze recycling


copper process metallurgy


copper recovery


copper waste

Expert's Ni-Co experience includes battery recycling, specifically nickel-cadmium battery recycling, Ni-metal hydride, and Li-ion recycling. Smelting and leaching of NiCoCuFe concentrates and matte; nickel and cobalt salt recovery from tankhouse bleed and from secondary feedstocks; separating Ni from Co by ozonation; and finding "homes" for NiCo wastes (including prior upgrading) in smelter and hydrometallurgical conversion operations. Expert led the team that innovated Amax's acid pressure leach process for treating nickel laterite. At Port Nickel (New Orleans), he was Process Engineer during start-up of the pressure leaching, residue flotation, and the hydrogen reduction circuits.

battery recycling


cobalt recovery


nickel metallurgy


nickel recovery


nickel-cadmium battery recycling

Expert is experienced in the various commercial routes for recovering secondary and primary zinc. He has been part of teams evaluating operations for acquisition. Other projects include processing NiCd batteries; leaching flue dust; slag fuming; rotary kiln and plasma-arc treatment of EAF dust; production of zinc sulfate, zinc oxide, zinc chloride, and zinc ammonium chloride; zinc recovery from auto scrap; and conversion of galvanizer's dross to roofing granules, secondary Zn ingot, and ZnO fines.

cadmium recovery


zinc recovery

Expert has extensive in-plant experience in smelting of secondary lead and tin feedstocks, including spent lead-acid batteries, tetraethyl lead, tin secondaries, and dust handling. Expert's expertise is particularly strong in the use of rotary furnaces and kilns. One of his papers led to substantial improvement in soda-matte secondary lead smelting efficiency. He works closely with domestic producers.

lead extraction


lead processing


lead recovery

Expert provided technology and start-up expertise for a major facility in Bolivia for converting stibnite concentrate to Sb2O3, and helped the U.S. trade delegation establish Chinese antimony oxide production technology and costs to support fair-trade negotiations. Converted antimony feedstocks to metal, smelted tin residues to secondary ingot, treated flue dust treatment by wet and pyro methods, and recycled tin sludges.

antimony recovery


antimony trioxide


tin recovery

Expert focuses his technical and project management experience on the recovery, separation, and refining of raw materials containing metals, by means of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. Expert has 38 years of experience, is a Registered Professional Engineer, has authored 33 technical papers, and holds 30 U.S. patents.



metal material recycling


nonferrous metal processing


nonferrous metal recovery


nonhazardous solid waste recycling




scrap metal recycling

Expert's work in this area includes incorporating additional feedstocks to the conventional thermite process for production of ferromolybdenum.


Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Denver, Colorado;  Colorado Springs, Colorado;  Aurora, Colorado;  Fort Collins, Colorado;  Arvada, Colorado;  Westminster, Colorado;  Boulder, Colorado;  Greeley, Colorado;  Longmont, Colorado;  and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

Often requested
with this expert:

Extractive-Metallurgy, Hydro-Metallurgy, Pyro-Metallurgy,...
Engineering: Mining, Minerals, Metallurgy, Chemicals,...
Hydrometallurgy and Tailings
Environmental and Process Equipment Use and Liability; OSHA...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution   Honors
1967   Ph.D.   Metallurgical Engineering   University of Minnesota   NSF Scholar
1964   B.S.   Metallurgical Engineering   Cornell University   Tau Beta Pi

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1997 to





Consulting Metallurgical Engineer


Expert consults on the recovery and recycling of primary and secondary raw materials, resource location, and byproduct marketing, all supported by on-site laboratory and pilot plant process metallurgical services.

1983 to 1997


Hazen Research, Inc.



Principal Metallurgical Engineer


He was involved in extractive metallurgy of primary and secondary materials.

1972 to 1982


Amax, Inc.


Corporate R&D


Senior Staff Metallurgist


Expert was responsible for the extractive metallurgy of tungsten, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, and copper.

1967 to 1972


Kennecott Copper


Corporate R&D


Research Engineer


He was involved in the extractive metallurgy of copper, molybdenum, and rhenium.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of Tau Beta Pi, the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers (AIME), and the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (CIM).


He is a Professional Engineer in Colorado.

Professional Appointments

Expert has been an Adjunct Professor at the Colorado School of Mines since 1990. He was past President of Denver's AIME-ASM chapter.


He was a distinguished lecturer for the Metallurgical Society of AIME, 2001.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has authored 32 technical papers, and holds 30 U.S. patents.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  
 - Fifth Interenational Hydrometallurgy Symposium, AIME/TMS  
 - Extraction and Processing Distinguished Lecture, AIME/TMS Annual Meeting  
 - Lead and Zinc Processing, The Metallurgical Society of AIME  
 - Journal of Metals  

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Expert consulted on the manufacturing of molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium chemicals: troubleshooting, unit operation startups and new product development.
  • He advised on the recovery of copper, nickel, cobalt, lead, and precious metals from industrial wastes: troubleshooting, unit operation startups, and new product development. Typical feedstocks involved include spent catalyst, batteries, etchants, plating wastes, circuit boards, tin-rich secondaries, byproduct salts, slags, drosses, and refractory metals (molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, tantalum, and niobium).
  • Expert consulted on technical and marketing criteria to profitably recover micronutrients from secondary materials, focusing on zinc, copper, manganese, and iron.
  • He advised on the recovery of metal values from spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, from spent nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, and from spent lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries. Expert is also expert in rotary furnace processing of lead, tin, and copper secondaries.
  • Expert consulted on the production of crude and refined pigment-grade antimony oxide, including the recovery of copper chemicals from spent etchants, plating wastes, and circuit boards.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Hydrometallurgical treatment expert for consulting on pyrometallurgical treatment of battery waste and EAF dust.
  • Molybdenum recovery expert for consulting on molybdenum recovery from hydrotreating catalyst process design.
  • Metallurgy expert for consulting on vanadium and nickel recovery.
  • Expert in chemistry for consulting on extracting metals from the Mo leaching process.
  • Expert in nickel recovery for consulting on nickel recovery during food processing.
  • Expert for consulting on de-oiling Molybdenite concentrate
  • Expert in Tungsten processing
  • Expert in tin hydrometallurgy for consulting on Tin Hydrometallurgy.
  • Molybdenum expert for consulting on Mineral Processing of Molybdenum.
  • Expert in heavy metal extraction for consulting on metal sludge recovery systems.
  • Expert in installed catalytic oxidizers for consulting on catalyst recycling.
  • Expert in fuel oil residue for consulting on vanadium recovery from heavy fuel oil ashes.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Expert has served as an expert witness in cases related to heavy metals in slag, heavy metals in micronutrient fertilizers, recycling of slags from copper production, and production of nickel/cobalt from laterite ores.
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Recycling expert for consulting on metal scrap recycling and processes.
  • Nickel metal hydride expert needed for a patent review regarding a nickel metal hydride battery.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Market Research:
He has performed market studies related to sources and outlets for metal-rich byproducts and wastes, including physical and chemical properties, tonnages, pricing, and competitive factors.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

He teaches two graduate-level courses on industrial recycling practices at the Colorado School of Mines, and organizes a three-day short course each June entitled “Recycling Metals from Industrial Waste” (2004 will be his 12th year).

Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

Expert has experience locating vendors of equipment and services related to chemicals containing metals. He has access to technical papers and extensive personal contacts to aid in vendor location.

Other Skills and Services

Expert has wide industrial contacts in the recovery and marketing of values from metal-containing raw materials, byproducts, and wastes.


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