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 Expert  108401

Expert in Enzyme and Protein Technology

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

North Carolina (NC)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise:

Listed with other top experts in: 

Expert has devoted much of his career to derivatization of surfaces, development of methods for immobilization of ligands, and characterization of affinity matrices. He pioneered development of the technique of analytical affinity chromatography and has used this technique to characterize protein-ligand, protein-ion, and protein-protein interactions.

affinity chromatography

This work is a spin-off of Expert's expertise in the area of affinity chromatography. The difference lies in the development of robust, high affinity ligands that could be used in a manner analogous to ion-exchange adsorption as a processing method. He is presently developing such a process for removal of beta-lactoglobulin.

bioselective adsorption technology


adsorption technology


adsorption technology

Expert has studied the physical-chemical characteristics of these proteins for 30 years. His work has included numerous published reviews of casein chemistry. More recent studies have examined interactions with whey proteins and the characteristics of calcium binding to submicelles.

casein protein

Expert has made developing information and technology for the use of enzymes in food processing a primary goal of his research. His enzyme studies have included oxidases, dehydrogenases, proteinases, carbohydrases, and lipases. His current studies have focused on the cloning and expression of enzymes and fusion proteins in recombinant microorganisms.

enzymal food processing


enzyme technology


enzyme technology

Since the late 1960s, studies in Expert's laboratory have included development of methods for immobilization and methods for characterization of immobilized enzymes. Most of these studies have utilized covalent immobilization techniques that he developed. Most recently, he has initiated the development of methods for enzyme immobilization by high affinity bioselective adsorption.

enzyme immobilization

Expert has devoted much of his career to development of methods for processing and improvement of the quality of fluid dairy products. Most of the work has focused on ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processing and flavor improvement by enzyme treatment with sulfhydryl oxidase. His work is progressing towards the cloning of that enzyme. In addition, he is currently examining a new technology for lactose hydrolysis using beta-galactosidase.

fluid dairy product

A number of Expert's studies are focused on development of immobilized enzyme technology for bioprocessing. He has published several reviews on the use of immobilized enzymes in food bioprocessing. He has developed an immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA) for the determination of protein digestibility in vitro. Currently, he is investigating the limited proteolysis with immobilized proteinase as a means for designing functionality in food proteins.

immobilized enzyme

Expert has conducted research on milk proteins for more than 40 years. His studies have included their isolation and identification, their physical-chemical characterization and methods for enzymatic modification. He has written numerous reviews of milk protein chemistry as well as a major chapter on milk for a major food chemistry textbook.

milk protein

Expert was trained as a protein chemist and has pursued physical-chemical studies of proteins throughout his career. His areas of study have included various levels of protein structure, protein interactions, and protein folding and disulfide bond formation. Currently, he is examining domain structure and the relationship between structure and functionality.


Several characteristics of the major bovine whey proteins, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin, have been investigated in Expert's laboratory. For example, he has studied Ca2+ binding, interactions with k-casein, digestibilities as affected by Maillard reaction and racemization and crosslinking, and binding to retinol. Recently, he has obtained and characterized the beta-barrel domain of beta-lactoglobulin by limited proteinolysis. His intention is to develop processes for designing functionality.

whey protein


protein technology

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Raleigh, North Carolina;  Greensboro, North Carolina;  Durham, North Carolina;  Winston Salem, North Carolina;  Fayetteville, North Carolina;  Cary, North Carolina;  High Point, North Carolina;  Greenville, North Carolina;  Rocky Mount, North Carolina;  and Lynchburg, Virginia.

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1963   Ph.D.   Chemistry (Biochemistry)   Michigan State University  
1958   B.S.   Dairy Technology (Food Science)   Ohio State University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

2001 to




Department of Food Science


William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professor Emeritus


1984 to 2001


North Carolina State University


Food Science and Biochemistry


William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professor


Expert was engaged 90% of the time in research and 10% in teaching.

1972 to 1984


North Carolina State University


Food Science and Biochemistry




1967 to 1972


North Carolina State University



Associate Professor


1964 to 1967


North Carolina State University


Food Science


Assistant Professor


Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of the ACS, the American Society of Biological Chemists, the American Institute of Nutrition, the AAAS, the Institute of Food Technologists, and the American Dairy Science Association.

Professional Appointments

He has served as both Chairman for many committees for the American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) and as their President. He has also served as the Student Awards Chair for the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society and has Chaired a Gordon Research Conference. Expert served on editorial boards for many food and dairy biochemistry journals. These include the Journal of Dairy Science, the Journal of Food Science, the Journal of Food Biochemistry, and the Journal of Food Protection. He is a reviewer for the Arch. Biochemistry and Biophysics, the Biochim. Biophysics Acta, the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, the Journal of Food Biochemistry, Biochemistry, the NSF Peer Review, and the NIH Peer Review. He served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Food Biochemistry and is an Editor for the Americas, where he comments on Agricultural and Food Chemistry. He also served as Regional Editor for Nahrung/Food.


Expert won the Dairy Research Foundation Award from the ADSA in 1985 and the Borden Award in 1987 from ADSA. He was named a Fellow of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society in 1993 and received the Award for Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, International Flavors & Fragrances, from the American Chemical Society in 1994. He was named Alumni Distinguished Graduate Research Professor at NCSU in 1997 and received the Alexander Quarles Holladay Medal for Excellence from North Carolina State University in 1999. Expert was named a Fellow of the American Dairy Science Association in 2000.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has authored or co-authored over 200 technical articles in his field and holds seven patents.

Consulting Services:
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Food science expert for consulting on definition of dairy defoamer vs. antifoamer for litigation case.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Years   Country / Region   Summary
1974 to 1974   Sweden   Expert conducted research at the Chemical Center in Lund while on a sabbatical.

Additional Skills and Services:
Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

Expert has had experience in locating vendors of biochemical and biotechnology supplies and equipment.

He has access to vendor catalogs to aid in vendor location.


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