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 Expert  108206

Expert in Polymer Selection for Food, Automotive, and Electronic Markets

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

New Zealand
New Zealand
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has an in-depth understanding of the high-pressure synthesis copolymerization of ethylene with combinations of co-monomers such as acrylates, vinyl acetate, (meth)acrylic acid, and carbon monoxide. His knowledge results from the high-pressure pilot plant work performed under his direction to make new, soft thermoplastic and thermoset polymers. He is familiar with ethylene-propylene, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

ethylene copolymerization

Expert's broad knowledge of the versatility of ethylene copolymers was gained while he managed research that led to the discovery of the highly-crystalline polar polymers (based on ethylene, butyl acrylate, and carbon monoxide) that are used as permanent plasticizers for PVC and for re-toughening recycled ABS and nylon. The amorphous, high-temperature, oil-resistant ethylene, methyl acrylate elastomer was also developed under his direction.

ethylene copolymer

Over the course of his career, Expert has gained experience with combining mutually incompatible polymers in order to achieve unusual combinations of performance properties. He has worked with nylon/ethylene copolymers (for toughening, flexibility, and to provide a Freon-resistant barrier) and polypropylene/ethylene copolymers (for creating thermoplastic elastomers).

polymer compatibility

Expert supervised the development of high-temperature, oil-resistant, non-halogenated ethylene-methyl acrylate elastomers. This required an understanding of the polymeric structure and chemistry responsible for the performance characteristics (deficiencies and benefits) of other elastomers, both halogenated and halogen-free. He is familiar with compounding elastomers with polymeric and inorganic additives for enhanced hot-tear-resistance and fire resistance.

elastomer chemistry


elastomer property


elastomer selection


elastomer structure

Expert directed research in monomer synthesis (perfluoro vinyl ethers and curesite monomers), as well as their polymerization with tetrafluoroethylene to create new thermoplastic and thermoset fluoropolymers.

fluoropolymer research

Expert has a complete understanding of the structure-property relationship of fluoropolymers with regard to their processing and ultimate end use as coatings, extruded shapes, molded parts, film, or wire coatings.



fluorocarbon polymer


fluoropolymer processing

Expert has first-hand knowledge of the unique fabrication processes required to convert PTFE into finished articles. This covers the pre-forming and sintering steps to convert granular PTFE into molded shapes or ram extruded profiles, the paste-extrusion of fine powder PTFE into unsintered tape, and the paste-extrusion/drying/sintering of fine powder PTFE into hose, tubing, and wire insulation. He is also familiar with coating substrates with a PTFE aqueous dispersion.

polytetrafluoroethylene processing


polytetrafluoroethylene ram extrusion

Expert is familiar with ethylene, (meth)acrylic-based acid ionomer technology. He is especially knowledgeable of this material's use in the packaging industry and a blend used in the manufacture of golfball covers.


Expert is very familiar with the barrier properties of polyesters, polyamides, ionomers, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol used in combination with each other in food packaging. He is also knowledgeable of the co-extrudable adhesives that are essential when incompatible barrier materials are combined into a multilayer packaging structure with rigid materials such as polypropylene or aluminum foil.

barrier polymer


ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer

Expert has managed the development of versatile, highly crystalline, polar polymers aimed at specific end uses based, for example, on ethylene, butyl acrylate, and carbon monoxide. These products are used as plasticizers for flexible PVC and for the toughening of recycled ABS. An oil-resistant, non-halogenated elastomer (VAMAC) was also developed under his direction.

copolymer formulation

Having directed the research effort for the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with combinations of monomers, Expert has created high-temperature, chemical-resistant fluoroelastomers. He is familiar with hexafluoropropylene, vinylidene fluoride, and perfluoroalkyl vinyl ethers along with the appropriate cure-site monomers.



fluorocarbon elastomer

A significant portion of Expert's career has been in fluoropolymer chemistry. As a researcher, he developed the aqueous polymerization route to "Teflon" PFA. He was instrumental in developing today's understanding of the end group chemistry of Teflon TFE, which is critical to its thermal stability. Expert is thoroughly familiar with the plant-scale polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene to make PTFE and its copolymers fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), perfluoroalkoxy-tetrafluoroethylene (PFA), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene (ETFE), and fluoroelastomers. This includes the safe handling of the highly reactive monomers used in these syntheses.

fluoropolymer polymerization


fluoropolymer product

Expert directed both process and product research for thermoplastic and thermoset fluoropolymers (Teflon, TFE, PFA, FEP, Tefzel, Kalrez, and Viton), as well as perfluorovinyl ether and curesite monomer synthesis. He was deeply involved in developing new, non-military markets for fluoropolymers, working closely with architectural and engineering design houses. This led to the adoption of fluoropolymers for applications in bearing pads, curtain walls and tunnels, and power cable insulation for rapid transit systems.

fluoropolymer technology


fluoropolymer marketing

REACTIVE COMPOUNDING. Expert led the effort to develop a unique, generic reactive compounding of crystalline and amorphous polymers on which the new flexible nylon, Zytel FN is based. This technology has the potential to deliver recyclable flexible articles that are now based on non-recyclable PVC.
FLUOROMONOMER. Expert managed the synthesis of perfluorovinyl ether monomers, vital to development of Teflon PFA and Kalrez. This involved the safe handling of explosive/toxic tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene.
A polymer's "architecture" defines the ease with which it will crystallize from the molten state during processing - and determine, for instance, whether a heated mold is required to allow the optimization of crystalline (mechanical,chemical, and barrier properties. Selection between polyphenylene sulfide, LCP, or polyetherketone for a high temperature electronic application could be based on their relative rates of crystallization in relatively cool molds.

crystalline-polymer structure-property relationship

In order to select the appropriate ethylene resin for an application it is essential that one has an understanding of the subtleties between the structures of low density PE, linear low density PE, high density PE and the metallocene-catalysis base PE's. Each has a specific manufacturing process that defines their level of crystallinity in th solid state which, in turn, determines their mechanical and thermal properties(higher density provides higher mechanical strength). The presence of long chain branching in low density PE provides excellent melt processibility - a feature not shared by other polyethylenes. Recent long-chain branched, metallocene-based, linear low density PE has succeeded in matching the processing of low density PE

ethylene resin

Thr development of Teflon PFA has provided what is essentially a melt processible PTFE. The property spectrum of heat and chemical resistance, combined with excellent electrical and radiation-resistance performance compares with (and can surpass) that established for PTFE.The performance of PFA is superior to that of Teflon FEP - as is the price.

The new amorphous Teflon AF, and Cytop (Asahi) offer a PTFE-type material that can be dissolved in specific solvents (such as 3M's FC 75) and applied as thin coatings to metal substrates. Thin coatings act as gas separation membranes to provide, for example, enriched oxygen from air. These amorphous polymers have glass transition temperatures from 108 to 240 dgrees Celcius.


fluorocarbon plastic material

The 'original' fluorocarbon resins are offered as powders that must be processed either like a ceramic(preformed and sintered), or "paste extruded" by mixing with a hydrocarbon lubricant,preformed, squeezed through a forming die, and sintered - ending up either as a wire coating or as hollow tubing.Parts made from these polymers have high crystallinity, do not melt, and can be used for extended time periods at elevated temperatures. The melt processible fluoropolymers (FEP and PFA)offer melt processibility and thus sacrifice the high temperature capability of PTFE. The copolymer of TFE and ethylene (Tefzel) brings a uniquely high degree of toughness to the fluoropolymer, essential for its use as a cut-through resistant wire coating polymer.

fluorocarbon resin

Polymer design has, over the last 20 years, led to the development of semi-crystalline polymer structures that are capable of withstanding extremes of heat,thermal aging, radiation, chemical exposure and mechanical abuse. Thes attributes, in combination with relative ease of processing, have allowed these polymers to displace thermosets such as diallyl phthalate in electronic components that must withstand accidental overload as well as resist the thermal "shock" of surface mount technology during printed curcuit component assembly. Typical of these aromatic polymers are polyphenylene sulfide, polyetherketone, poly ethylenenaphthalate, polycyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate, and liquid crystal polymers.

high-polymer structure-property relationship

Perfluoroalkoxy polymers are coplymers derived from tetrafluoroethylene and monomers synthesised from perfluorovinyl ethers such as perfluoropropylvinyl ether (PPVE) or perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE). Both of these monomers are derived from hexafluoropropylene epoxide (HFPO) - a product of the reaction between HFP and oxygen under controlled comditions.The PPVE is the comonomer, with TFE, that generates Teflon PFA. The PMVE (ceated from HFPO and carbonyl fluoride)is the comonomer that with TFE provides the elastomer Kalrez. Teflon PFA has the end-use property/ performance profile of PTFE but can be melt processed at temperatures above 360 degrees Celcius.


Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise

Often requested
with this expert:

Teflon PTFE, FEP, PFA, and Kynar
Plastics and Polymer Additives
Non-Stick Coatings, Thermal Spray Coatings
New Materials, Processing, and Application Development

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1962   PhD   Organic Chemistry   University of Durham, England  
1959   BS   Chemistry   University of Durham, England  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1992 to





Principal Consultant


New product development (oil-resistant thermo plastic elastomers), new applications (TPE's for closures and fluoro polymers for gas separation membranes), and problem solving (thermoset and thermo plastic)

1990 to 1992


DuPont Company



Manager of Technology Development


1971 to 1990


DuPont Company



Senior Research Supervisor


1965 to 1971


DuPont Company


Marketing/Technical Representative



1961 to 1965


DuPont Company



Research Chemist


Career Accomplishments:

Expert has been a senior member of the Society of Plastics Engineers since 1975.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has a number of patents.

Consulting Services:
Recent Client Requests:
  • Dupont expert for polyimide for consulting on Polyimide films and alternative products.
  • Expert in Seals between two metal flanges.
  • Expert in Ryton plastic ring failure due to electric arc.
  • Expert in formulating for electrical cables.
  • Expert in Wire coating/insulation processes using solvent based systems.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Expert provided expert witness in the successful defense of a client sued in a product failure suit involving toughened nylon.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Country / Region   Summary
Japan   While with DuPont, Expert made annual visits to the ethylene copolymer sites in Japan (Chiba and Otake).
Switzerland and the United Kingdom   Expert also made a visit to Switzerland and the United Kingdom each year.

Market Research:
He was responsible for the introduction of Teflon into non-military applications (1966-71). He managed the "New Business Development" group for DuPont Research (1979-81), bringing new polymer and polymer alloy developments to the marketplace.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

He is currently teaching an advanced course in Polymer Technolgy at Auckland University (NZ).


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