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 Expert  107815

Expert in Materials: Physical/Organic/Analytical, Glass, Ceramics, Deicing, Fiberization, Low Viscosity Melts

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Wisconsin (WI)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise:

Listed with other top experts in: 

Expert has expertise in the many methods of fiberization. He has evaluated these methods and made cost-benefit comparisons. In the field of direct spinning from the melt, he is particularly knowledgeable, having extended the science into the region of materials having low viscosity melts. Another major accomplishment includes the discovery of the simultaneous nucleation and redrawing of nonsilicious glass fibers. For the Army, he has developed an environmentally degradable glass for metal coated fiberglass dipoles (chaff) for use as radar deflectors.

Expert lead the discovery of the first practical way to achieve IMS through rapid coating of nascent streams with thin solid films to stabilize against break-up until freezing can occur. His process has opened the way to low-cost fiberization of important classes of materials (e.g., metals, nonsilicious metal oxides, organic monomers, etc.). In addition, he has demonstrated the superior matrix compatibility of certain of these chemical classes of fibers in composite structures.

Expert showed further how cost-effective improvements in physical properties can be obtained by the redrawing of IMS fibers, i.e., the RIMS process. Expert discovered this process while redrawing a calcia-alumina IMS fiber. The attenuated fiber had a Young's modulus which is double that of the parent IMS fiber and displayed XRD evidence of micro crystallinity.

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation, Expert has directed an in-depth study of chemical road deicers for the purpose of developing a profile of the ideal deicer and the selection of an environmentally benign, potentially low-cost embodiment of that ideal. The substance selected, CMA (a mixture of calcium and magnesium salt of acetic acid), is under commercial development by Chevron and other organizations. Expert is currently studying low-cost methods of synthesizing CMA from stocks of waste biomass.

After a thorough study of a major deinking paper company's process, Expert devised a solution to its low-density contaminant problem and located its proper point of application. He has also consulted with major kraft paper companies on malodor control.

Expert has successfully employed his extensive knowledge and experience in physical and chemical areas to the solution of a wide assortment of client company and government problems. He developed a high performance composite ablation material for the ARPA for use on nose cones during re-entry. Using the ablation concept in an entirely different chemical context, he devised a low-cost fire retardant document enclosure for a client company, who then (with his assistance) patented the idea. For NASA, he has developed a containment or position keeping device (the Sonic Pump Levitator) for use in containerless processing applications in space. He directed organic synthesis work to improve the process for 2,4 D related products. He has also formulated and assisted in formulating aerosol compositions for many client companies.

Expert was a leader in the analytical chemistry activities of two of his early industrial employers. Subsequently, he has relied heavily on instrumental and wet chemical analysis, as well as on instrumentation in general, to support his R&D activities for client companies and governmental agencies. His electronics training has helped him to adapt and sometimes devise new instrumentation to meet immediate R&D goals.


fiber spinning


glass ceramic


glass technology


non-textile fiber


synthetic fiber


inviscid melt spinning


melt spinning


redrawn inviscid melt spinning


chemical road deicer


road deicer




chemical process troubleshooting


analytical chemistry


wet chemical analysis

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Milwaukee, Wisconsin;  Madison, Wisconsin;  Kenosha, Wisconsin;  Racine, Wisconsin;  Appleton, Wisconsin;  Rockford, Illinois;  Aurora, Illinois;  Elgin, Illinois;  Waukegan, Illinois;  and Schaumburg, Illinois.

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1951   Ph.D.   Physical Organic Chemistry   Johns Hopkins University  
1949   M.S.   Physical Organic Chemistry   Johns Hopkins University  
1944   Certificate: Electronics Engineering Officer (ET)   Radar, Sonar & Communications   USNTS (U.S. Naval Training Station) - Harvard/MIT  
1943   B.S.   Chemistry, (Math & Physic minors)   California Institute of Technology  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1994 to





Senior Scientist


Expert is responsible for the technical development of client company projects under TBG's care.

1985 to 1996


University of Wisconsin


Chemical Engineering


Faculty Associate/Adjunct Professor


He co-founded and co-directed the RIMS consortium, and supervised and taught Ph.D. candidate materials on science-related topics.

1984 to




Research and Development


Vice President


At Sedun, Expert explored commercial development of RIMS (new proprietary fiber), sought consulting and performed other R&D projects.

1959 to 1984


Bjorksten Research Laboratories



President, Director of Research and Development, Board Member


He acquired and directed research and development contracts from government and industry. He also acted as an expert witness in court and as a consultant.

1954 to 1959


Rhodia, Inc. (subsidiary of Rhône Poulenc)


Fine Chemicals (perfumes and components)


Head, Analytical and Industrial Reodorant Lab


He supervised quality control of perfume component chemicals and explored markets for manufacuring by-products.

1950 to 1954


E.I. DuPont de Nemours, Inc.


Organic Chemicals




In this early part of his career with DuPont, Expert performed chemical research on IC engine combustion, fluorescent dyes, property measurements on p-aminophenol, and applications of chlorofluorocarbons.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert has held memberships in the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Ceramic Society (ACerS), the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), ASM (The Materials Information Society), Gamma Alpha, NYAS, the Sigma Xi honor society and TADr.


He earned a U.S. Naval Officer's Electrical Engineering Certificate (1944). He received five certificates of recognition from NASA for work in levitation control.

Professional Appointments

Expert has held the Chairmanship and other offices in the Wisconsin Section of the AIChE and the Presidency of the John Hopkins Chapter of Gamma Alpha.


As a graduate student, he was a recipient of a DuPont Fellowship for two years. He received a "B Bonus" for his work on p-aminophenol while employed at DuPont.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has authored or co-authored 39 patents and technical papers.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Advanced Ceramic Materials  
 - U.S. Patent and Trademark Office  
 - Federal Highway Administration Report  
 - Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society  

Government Experience:
Years   Agency   Role   Description
1959 to 1962   ARPA [Contract NOrd-19100 Navy Ordnance]   Project Leader   Expert was Project Leader representing his employer, Bjorksten Research Laboratories, Inc. (BRL), in a contract from ARPA (DoD's Advanced Research Projects Agency) for R&D on thick-walled, high-temperature pressure vessels using glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GRP) construction and a spherical configuration. Expert was responsible for design, construction, testing and cost control on the contract which tested the suitability of continuous GRP for the containment of high temperature and high pressure simultaneously. His background in physics and chemistry were helpful in solving the many problems associated with this contract. The final sphere attained an internal pressure around 300,000 psi and a temperature exceeding the melting point of platinum (1774°C). Results were presented at the June 2, 1961 meeting of SAMPE.
1960 to 1966   U.S. Navy, Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) [Contract NO2-62-0897-s Navy Ordnance]   Project Leader   Expert was Project Leader, again representing BRL, the contractor to the Navy for R&D on materials suitable for rocket nose cones. His specific objective was a thermal protection material that would enable nose cones to withstand the combined severe thermal and mechanical stresses of reentry. The project examined high-temperature viscosity, dilatancy, low thermal conductivity and endothermic gasification. Expert controlled expenditures and directed the R&D of the contract. He also supervised technicians, wrote reports and kept in touch with NOL regarding alterations in contract goals when/as they appeared desirable to make. He used his knowledge of physical chemistry and basic physics in choosing systems to study and in the design and construction of a high-vacuum, high-temperature viscometer. The best embodiment of contract goals was a dispersion of fine particles of tungsten in a fused silica matrix. The results were published in an article in the Bulletin of the American Ceramics Society.
1964 to 1984   Other Government Contracts   Project Leader   Expert was engaged in more than a dozen other contracts. Besides the usual administrative tasks common to all of them, he provided much technological leadership and insight. Brief details on some of these projects are below.

Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) (1964-65): Spin boron fibers directly from the melt (2300°C). He had just developed a technology, Inviscid Melt Spinning (IMS), to do this under a private industry R&D contract with Monsanto Chemical. With their cooperation he successfully adapted IMS to the fiberizing of boron from its low viscosity melt. The difficulty of freezing molten streams into fiber/wire is their tendency to develop surface waves (Rayleigh waves) which, once initiated, can grow rapidly in amplitude to the point of disruption of the stream before freezing can occur. The speed of Rayleigh wave development goes up with a decrease in stream viscosity. Most metals, boron included, fall into the category of substances whose melt viscosities are too low to prevent stream disruption before freezing. The IMS remedy is to apply a sheath or coating to the nascent stream, confining it to its original cylindrical shape. The chemical aspect of IMS usually involves finding a gas which will react with the stream surface to produce a suitable sheath in a timely manner.

WPAFB (1965): 5 days consulting to transfer the boron adaptation of IMS technology to the gov't contracting wing of Monsanto at their labs in Everett, MA.

Texaco Experimental Inc. (1966): Made tungsten-coated silica fiber. Involved introducing a small concentration of tungsten oxide (WO3) into silica and drawing the fiber. Achieved high temperature H2 reduction of some of the WO3 to produce a superficial tungsten coating.

Army, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) (1972): Enhanced the dispersion of deployed chaff (aluminum-coated glass fiber dipoles for radar interference) by electrostatic repulsion. Accomplished in the lab.

Dept. of Transportation (1976-80): Found an environmentally benign substitute for chloride-based highway deicers, known for their corrosiveness. Two deicing chemicals were found which challenged the justification for the current use of Cl deicers: methanol and CMA (calcium and magnesium acetates). Both are superior to sodium and calcium Cl in environmental side effects. CMA is a corrosion inhibitor and may have the potential of synthesis from waste biomass.

Los Alamos Scientific Labs & Lawrence Livermore (1976-79): Increasing the uniformity of the wall thickness of glass microballoons (GMBS) for use in laser fusion (inertial). Gas jet levitation, rapid rotation, melting and refreezing of GMBS.

NASA, Huntsville (1978-83): Adapted gas jet levitator to handle larger (than GMB) objects for use in the Containerless Processing in Space Program. He developed and patented the Sonic Pump Levitator (SPL), a device which converts sound energy (e.g., from a loudspeaker) into a pulsed unidirectional stream of gas or air. The outputs of 3 opposed pairs of orthogonally situated SPLs were able to hold a ping pong ball-sized object in a stable levitated position in full gravity and the reduced gravity of the KC-135 space simulator ("Vomit Comet"). The SPLs were controlled by electroptical position data fed through a computer in a feedback loop. The computer program was accepted by the Univ. of Wisc. as the MS thesis of one of the members of Expert's team. He received 5 Certificates of Recognition from NASA for his work.

NASA, Huntsville (1982-83): Developed a continuous process for production of carbosiloxazane fibers (first step in the gel process of producing silicon carbide/silicon nitride fibers). He and his coworkers successfully adapted the IMS technology to the fiberization of the precursor resin. The manager was pleased to note this was the first time the resin had been successfully fiberized.

1943 to 1946   U.S. Navy (Reserve)   Officer (Deck and Electrical Engineering)   Expert was given a four-month apprentice and midshipsman training (Columbia University), qualifying him for Deck Officer, Ensign. He received eight months added training (Harvard, MIT) qualifying him further as an Electrical Engineering Officer. He completed three months more of Electronics Countermeasures School (NRL, Washington, D.C.), following which he and two radiomen were assigned to USS YMS-319, an all-wood ship equipped with RCM gear, operating in the Southwest Pacific. The main task was to monitor enemy radar and jam as appropriate. Expert also saw to the servicing of all electronics equipment aboard YMS-319 and sometimes that on other ships in the flotilla, and stood deck watches. Six months later, Expert (as Lt. j.g.) was reassigned to Com. 5th Amphibious Forces, where he helped in planning the electronics warfare aspect of a landing on Honshu, Japan.

Consulting Services:
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Language Skills:
Foreign Language   Description
German   Expert can read German.
French   He also reads French.

Additional Skills and Services:
Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

Expert has experience locating vendors of carbon/graphite fiber and various shaped products, pyrolytic graphite, glassy carbon, platinum group metals, refractory metals and oxides, ceramic and glassy fibers, and laser and electron beam drilling and machining.


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