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 Expert  721326

Expert in Maillard Reaction; Flavor Analysis

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
MAILLARD REACTION; NON-ENZYMATIC BROWNING; REACTION FLAVOR. Expert has studied the interaction of amino acids or proteins with reducing sugars which results in a prominent chemical reaction that occurs during thermal processing of foods. This reaction, known as Maillard or browning reaction, has profound effects on the color, flavor, and texture of processed foods. Control of this reaction during thermal treatment can lead to a greater commercial exploitation of its effects, such as in situ generation of reaction flavors and enhancement of the quality of flavor and color of processed food. Expert has spent the last ten years studying the detailed mechanism of this reaction to provide the tools necessary to control this reaction in food systems. The effects of amino acid and sugar type, kinetics of the reaction, effect of temperature, and water content are important parameters that can be manipulated to achieve the desired end product. Expert has used synthetic intermediates (Amadori products) of this reaction to study their fate during the Maillard reaction and employed different analytical techniques to analyze the reaction mixtures. These techniques include pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py/GC/MS), linked-scan mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a multi-detector system (diode array, scanning fluorescent and pulsed amperometry) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

FLAVOR ANALYSIS. Expert understands that the flavor of a food product is the single most important factor that determines its commercial success. Knowledge of the differences in flavor composition between different samples can lead to a better understanding of the differences in their processing conditions and the presence of specifically added ingredients that give rise to the perceived differences. Expert has applied his experience gained through analysis of complex Maillard reaction mixtures to the analysis of different food samples, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with cryogenic cooling of the GC column to trap volatile aroma components and identifying their structures by mass spectrometry. In addition, the origins of certain reaction flavors can be identified by tracing back specific products arising from specific precursors.

MICROWAVE COOKING. A recurring problem facing the food and flavor industries is the lack of browning that occurs during microwave cooking. In addition, the sensory properties of microwave-cooked foods differ considerably from those prepared by conventional heating methods. Expert, based on his research of Maillard reaction, has developed considerable experience in generating specific flavors and colors under microwave irradiation. This approach has been used successfully to generate freshly-baked and meat flavors under microwave heating.




flavor analysis


Maillard reaction


microwave cooking


non-enzymatic browning


reaction flavor


amino acid

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise

Often requested
with this expert:

Flavor Chemistry, Aromas
Food Analysis, Flavor, Off-Flavor, Dairy Products, Wine and...
Food Technology, Product Development/ Optimization, Food...
Confectionery and Chocolate Product Development;...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1986   PhD   Food Chemistry   University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada  
1978   MSc   Chemistry   American University of Beirut, Lebanon  
1976   BSc   Chemistry   American University of Beirut, Lebanon  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Title  

1993 to


(Undisclosed University)


Associate Professor


1987 to 1993


(Undisclosed University)


Assistant Professor


1986 to 1987


University of Alberta


Post Doctoral Fellow


Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology (CIFST), and the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).

Professional Appointments

He is the book review editor of Food Research International, published by Elsevier.


He is the recipient of the 5NR research award from the Government of Canada.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has authored numerous scientific publications and has been invited to write chapters in books and review articles on the Maillard reaction.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry  
 - Spectroscopy  
 - Allured Publishing Company  

Government Experience:
Years   Agency   Role   Description
1995 to 1996   Environment Canada   Consultant   Expert participated in the development of microwave-assisted synthesis and extraction for Canada's Department of the Environment (Environment Canada).

Consulting Services:
Recent Client Requests:
  • Coffee expert for consulting on Maillard Reaction and coffee roasting issues.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Glucosamine thermal stability expert witness.
  • Food chemist expert for consulting on orange juice processing litigation case.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Language Skills:
Foreign Language  

Additional Skills and Services:
Other Skills and Services

Expert has been an invited speaker at various international conferences. Among Expert's teaching responsibilities at McGill are the undergraduate courses organic chemistry and flavor chemistry.


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