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 Expert  107977

Expert in Printed Wiring Board Assembly

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Florida (FL)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert is the inventor of surface mount (SM) assembly. He has set up over 500 SM centers in the US, Europe, Australia, and Japan. He initiated SM at Motorola. Additionally, he has considerable experience auditing SM work centers so as to determine world-class status. He can provide problem analysis and supply suggestions to improve yields and reduce costs while enhancing reliability. His work in SM was voted the "Best of Year" Award at Expo-SMT, two years in a row. He has also won the "Best of the Year" award from NEP/CON. His background covers the bare PWB, design guidelines, and surface mount paste and wave soldering with an emphasis on soldering to six sigma levels. Failure analysis is also a specialty that Expert offers.

surface-mount assembly


surface-mount assembly workmanship standard


surface-mount printed circuit board


surface-mount solder joint reliability

Expert has 15 years experience in SM technology and is the holder of the first patent in SM soldering to cover wave, reflow, and hand assembly. Before retiring from Motorola, Expert was their world-wide expert in SM soldering and cleaning. He has developed soldering processes involving both manual and automatic in-line. He is an expert in the application of nitrogen to IR no-clean flux and solder reflow. He has worked with solder joint design and reliability as well as PWB pad design and layout including finite element computer modeling. He teaches design guidelines, material selection, paste printing, component placement, soldering, cleaning, and testing for the University of Wisconsin at their Continuing Education Center. Expert also provides an in-house service for surface mount seminars. These seminars cover design, materials, pad configuration design, soldering, cleaning, and test (quality control) for accelerated testing. Prior clients include H-P, Motorola, General Motors, and IBM as well as contract houses such as Solectron.


solder fatigue




soldering material


surface-mount solder joint


solder joint failure


solder joint failure analysis

He has developed aqueous cleaning and saponification processes to eliminate electromigration. He is . His soldering and cleaning work were awarded the US Reliability award and the NEPCON best technical paper of the year. As Lockheed-Martin, his PWB work merited him the top award in science 3 out of 7 times. He has developed a non-destructive one-minute test for insulation resistance (THB) that simulates 15 years of real time electro-migration testing.

aqueous cleaner


aqueous parts cleaning


electronics aqueous solvent


soldering cleaning


surface-mount cleaning

Expert developed flux spraying, preheating and soldering of no-clean fluxes. He is familiar with solder joint design for no-clean fluxes, nitrogen atmospheres for no-clean flux optimization, and the use of no-clean fluxes to eliminate electromigration. When no-clean fluxes are used it is no longer necessary to clean the flux residue off the soldered assembly. He has developed a test to determine no-clean residue integrity.

fluxless solder


fluxless soldering


no-clean flux


no-clean solder


solder flux removal


soldering flux

In recent years Expert has developed Ni-Au processes to replace HASL By doing extensive work with DOE technology, the Ni-Au process benefits now exceed HASL regarding flat surfaces and shelf life solderability. His processes with Ni-Au have been implemented worldwide and cost reduction and quality improvements have been substantial-in some cases improvements to 20%. The "black band" problem has been eliminated and product yields to 100% are realized in production.

electroless nickel plating

By developing an accelerated test for PWB insulation and electromigration, Expert has reduced testing from 30 days to 1 minute. The 1-minute test simulates 15 years of real time. The test can be set up in one hour and the cost of the equipment is only $800. Expert has proven the results with many companies including IBM, Microsoft, and Solectron. His testing shows that if no-clean residues are not properly deactivated, field problems result.



highly-accelerated life testing

Expert has developed high resolution printing and stenciling processes using optical techniques. This involves printing from 8-50 mil centers. Expert has applied this printing to tape automated bonding.

solder paste printing

By using Finite Element Modeling, Expert has found the significance of heel and toe fillets in FPT. From this knowledge, he has established new wave soldering and paste processes to improve yields to six sigma for companies such as Motorola, H-P, and General Motors. The new footprint designs and processes have improved cost by 65%. The new processes include PWB design and stencil modifications. Expert's work has completely eliminated intermittent field problems in joints. Internationally, his processes have been proven for quality and cost benefits.


Expert has invented wave and reflow soldering machines. His background includes soldering with and without nitrogen to six sigma levels, including no-clean type fluxes. He has a method to assure the safe use of no-clean fluxes.

reflow soldering


flow soldering


multiwave soldering

Expert teaches how to design and manufacture printed-wiring boards to six sigma performance levels. He has initiated design, materials, processes, and quality control methods.

printed-wiring board reliability

Expert is proficient in using accelerated test methods (vibration, shock, surface insulation resistance, THB, thermal and chemical techniques). These methods simulate up to 40 years of actual product life. His ALT methods have real time relationships.

accelerated testing


accelerated solder joint testing

Expert shows companies how to design and build PWBs to six sigma performance. The technique covers design, PWB specification development, processes, and quality control.


six sigma quality

Expert has a novel background for both active and passive component placement. This background embraces dimensional stack-up, tolerances, placement error, and other placement controls to enhance yields.

surface-mount component

A technique developed by Expert "Trend Analysis," identifies problems effecting production yields and yields solutions to production problems. By understanding process/design/material interactions, 100% first-time yields are achievable. The "Trend Analysis" technique is so simple to use that over-the-telephone solutions are possible.

yield enhancement

In this area, Expert provides consultation in PWB fabrication, incoming inspection, laminate, and solder mask specification. He also provides a unique service in bare PWB vendor selection and survey techniques to reduce bare board costs by 25-30%. He developed printed-wiring board processes for the bare PWB and teaches in-house courses on how to write specifications to increase PWB yield.

printed-wiring board fabrication


printed-wiring board laminate


printed-wiring board solderability


printed wiring board assembly

SOLDERABILITY MEASUREMENTS FOR SM PADS. This technique measures the surface integrity of SM QFPD pads. The assessment measures joint integrity by adhesion/cohesion methods and correlates to peel testing but does not require equipment and is simple to use. The cohesive/adhesive assessment criteria is a go/no-go technique that is easy to apply. The process includes a specification written plan.

solder joint reliability

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Tampa, Florida;  Orlando, Florida;  Port Saint Lucie, Florida;  Palm Bay, Florida;  Lakeland, Florida;  Melbourne, Florida;  Deltona, Florida;  and Daytona Beach, Florida.

Often requested
with this expert:

Surface Mount Technology
Soldering Technology, Printed Circuit Boards, Intermetallic...
Electronic Reliability & On-Chip ESD Protection
Wastewater & Permits, Electro/ Electroless/ Semiconductor...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1951   BS   Engineering   Syracuse University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1987 to


Expert's Firm




Surface mount and printed wiring board design/assembly consultants

1976 to 1987





Manager of SM & PWBA


1958 to 1976




Research and Development



Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a licensed Professional Engineer.


Expert has been honored with the National Reliability Award for his work in soldering and cleaning, Best Paper of the Year award by NEPCON, a gold medallion for science, a silver inventor's cup award for surface mount-PWB designs, and both the Inventor and Author of the Year awards by Lockheed-Martin.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert holds numerous patents including those relating to PWB design and fabrication, soldering and cleaning, and surface mount assembly. He teaches seminars on SURFACE MOUNT PWB SOLDERING and CLEANING. His book and video tape was voted the top training award at EXPO SMT two years in a row. He also initiated six sigma soldering at Motorola. He has authored a book and has published numerous articles.

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Expert is available for in-house training in his areas of expertise, including surface mount PWB soldering and cleaning.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Solder flux expert for consulting on solder flux residue characterization and control.
  • Soldering expert for consulting on wave soldering of electronic thru hole components.
  • Wave solder expert for consulting on solder quality investigation.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert circuit boards manufacturer arizona for consulting on opinion.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:
Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

Expert has experience locating vendors of PWB materials, solder and flux materials, SM contractors, solder and cleaning machines, FR reflow machines, bare PWB fabrication, bare PWB vendor surveys, SM assembly & shop audits to enhance yields, SM placement, and SM design guidelines. He has access to the following resources: databases, ALT, IR, environmental real time data and personal contacts.


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