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 Expert  721799

Expert in Bonding, Adhesion: Belt, Tire, Hose, Adhesive Failure Analysis

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Colorado (CO)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has 25+ years experience in the science and technology of bonding to textile fibers. His experience is with power transmission belts where very durable textile-to-rubber bonds are required in high horsepower and high temperature applications. He has worked with polyester, nylon, aramid, and rayon fibers. Expert utilizes adhesion science and innovative technology to achieve superior bonding between the fibers and candidate adhesives. He uses surface energy properties and solubility parameter concepts to formulate adhesives that will achieve chemical bonding and physical bonding of fibers to the rubber substrate. Expert has developed innovative and robust treating processes to improve fiber bonding in low surface energy materials. He is very familiar with instruments for taking contact angle measurements. Experience with fabric finishing processes allows him to make practical, precise, and detailed recommendations to clients.

Expert specializes in the formulation of aqueous adhesives for bonding textiles to rubber. He is an expert in resorcinol formaldehyde latex (RFL) adhesives having worked continuously in the field for 27 years. He also is expert in formulating aqueous adhesive primers for polyester and aramid fibers. His broad knowledge of adhesion science enables him to conduct adhesive selection projects rapidly and with a high degree of success. In addition to formulating adhesives for good bonding to textiles, he uses his textile processing experience to ensure that the adhesive curing characteristics match the client's capabilities. Statistically designed experiments are used in adhesive formulation projects to gain a through understanding of the chemistry and mixing requirements of the adhesive formulation and its curing profile. His global network of contacts in research departments at chemical manufacturers allows him to obtain the materials required to make adhesives containing adhesion enhancers and other key ingredients.

Expert has worked his entire career (40 years) in the area of elastomer adhesion. His experience is in rubber-to-metal, rubber-to-rubber and rubber-to-textile bonding. He worked in the aerospace industry on rubber-to-metal bonding with steel, aluminum, NBR, SBR, and liquid polybutadiene. These were man-rated systems, which were processed with an extreme degree of reliability. He was presented with the Apollo Achievement Award for his accomplishments in putting the first man on the moon. In the rubber-to-rubber area, he has worked with a full range of elastomers including CR, HNBR, NBR, HNBR, CSM, NR, EPDM, ACSM, and SBR. While adhesives are generally not used in rubber-to-rubber interfaces, he is has developed processes that promote adhesion between these two surfaces. Expert also has investigated and identified causes for failure in rubber-to-rubber adhesion. He is an expert in rubber-to-textile adhesion. He has developed many complete treating systems (adhesive and bonding process) for power transmission (v-belts and timing belts), and fluid handling/power (hose) products using the same elastomers noted above. Many of these systems were based on resorcinol formaldehyde latex (RFL).


fiber bonding


contact angle measurement


solubility parameter


fabric finishing


fabric surface property


surface energy measurement


chemical bonding


physical bonding


tire design


adhesive formulation technology


adhesive formulation


adhesive compounding


adhesive selection


adhesion science


adhesive curing


aqueous adhesive


material substitution process


rubber adhesion


elastomer adhesion


elastomer bonding




peel strength

Assigning the most probable cause for bond failure is one of the most important factors in developing successful adhesives. He is an expert in failure analysis of failed bonded surfaces and has conducted more than 15 separate studies in this area. Causes of failure ranged from contamination to improper processing to polymer migration. His chemical engineering background and extensive experience in manufacturing allows him to quickly assign probable causes for failure. He obtains chemical surface analysis of the substrates using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and SIMS so that the compounds at the interface can be determined scientifically. He also uses scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to augment the analysis with a visual picture of the failed surface.

He has developed many RFL formulas using latexes based on CR, NBR, HNBR, XHNBR, VPSBR, XVPSBR, EPDM, and CSM elastomers. His knowledge extends to both preformed and in-situ resin types. He has formulated RFLs having a wide range of modulus to meet client's requirements. He uses statistically designed experiments to assist in obtaining a robust set of bonding, mixing, and processing parameters.

He begins development by documenting his client's requirements for initial/aged adhesion, service conditions, substrates to be bonded, mixing/treating capability, pot life, and cost. A specification is prepared with the client's approval. Using his experience, he selects starting formulas based on the specification. Adhesion screening tests are conducted to ensure the correct path has been selected. A series of designed experiments is run to define the best set of independent variables for the candidate formula. A detailed report is provided to the client so that accurate decisions can be made going forward.

Adhesion to high performance fibers such as aramid and polyester is difficult because of their low surface energy and surface morphology characteristics. He has in-depth experience with processes to Increase the surface energy and alter the surface chemistry. In particular, he is very familiar with plasma processing and has the capability to conduct process studies at equipment vendors. He uses surface tension measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to confirm that the plasma process has accomplished the desired changes. He has designed and started up two major water-based adhesive manufacturing plants. He has been the principle consultant on two large-scale plants. He has provided detailed recommendations on process improvements to several other clients. His chemical engineering background enables him to integrate the requirements of the adhesive mixing process with the practicalities and economic restrictions presented by his clients. He is very familiar with mixing and weighing equipment.

Expert has formulated several solvent borne rubber cements for bonding textiles to rubber and rubber to rubber. These cements were based on CR, NBR, CSM, and EPDM elastomers. Adhesion promoters, such as polymeric isocyanate were part of the formula. He formulated EPA compliant solvent blends for the cements saving the user from having to purchase emissions control equipment. Solvent blends were based on solubility parameter concepts so that the most efficient and low cost materials could be used.


adhesive failure analysis


secondary-ion mass spectroscopy


chemical surface analysis


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


surface analysis


bond strength


adhesive failure


scanning electron microscopy


resorcinol formaldehyde latex


resorcinol-formaldehyde resin


water-based adhesive


fiber surface modification


plasma surface treatment


surface tension measurement


adhesive manufacturing


adhesive material


adhesive cement

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Denver, Colorado;  Colorado Springs, Colorado;  Aurora, Colorado;  Fort Collins, Colorado;  Arvada, Colorado;  Pueblo, Colorado;  Westminster, Colorado;  Boulder, Colorado;  Greeley, Colorado;  and Longmont, Colorado.

Often requested
with this expert:

Rubber and Adhesion Technology
EPDM Elastomer, Chemistry and Technology
Applied Rubber Technology, Design of Experiments, and...
Rubber Technology

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1960   BS   Chemical Engineering   University of Southern California  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1999 to







He is responsible for the daily operation of the business.

1973 to 1999


Gates Rubber Co.


Power Transmission


Sr. Reserch Engineer


He was responsible for the development of new and innovative chemical treatments for industrial fibers to enhance adhesion to a variety of rubber compounds.

1963 to 1973


Lockheed Propuslion Company


Materials and Processes


Senior Engineer


He was responsible for development/selection of new materials and processes for man-rated systems in the Apollo project. He also worked on other solid rocket development programs.

1960 to 1963


BF Goodrich Aerospace




Materials and Processes Engr.


He was responsible for developing new processes for the manufacturing of solid rocket motors.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of the American Chemical Society and the Adhesion Society.


He received the Apollo Achievement Award from NASA for his dedicated service to the nation as a member of the team that accomplished man's first landing on the moon, July 20, 1969.

Publications and Patents Summary

He has two publications, one patent, and one Meritorious Award in lieu of a patentable discovery.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Presented at November meeting of the Intl. Society of Industrial Fabric Manufacturers  
 - Adhesives Age  

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • He has assisted clients in identifying types of contamination on failed bonded parts using XPS, SSIMS, and other instrumental techniques. He helped the customer prepare the sample, coordinated the analysis work with the laboratory, and interpreted the data for the customer in the light of the customer's process. Ultimately, the customer identified and corrected the source of the contamination. He specializes in identifying the sources of failure in mechanical rubber goods such as belts and hose. Textile-to-rubber bond failures are a major part of his specialty.
  • He developed new UV curable coatings that can be substituted for solvent borne coating. He coordinated the material development and the process development for the customer. He prepared detailed functional specifications for the customer that describe the material in Chemical Engineering terms so that formulators can target their materials to meet the specification.
  • He recommended improved mixing techniques for RFL adhesives used to treat textile fibers for adhesion. The improvements resulted in longer shelf life for the RFL adhesive and more robust processability.
  • He recommended chemical treatments for textiles, which resulted in more robust and improved quality processes.
  • He conducts training classes on "Adhesives for Textiles" for all levels of corporate associates.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert in Silicone bonding.
  • Expert in hydrogenated nitrile latex for consulting on reinforced fabrics for belts.
  • Adhesive expert for consulting on Adhesive process improvement.
  • Expert in adhesive application machine for consulting on repair Improvement.
  • How to find an adhesive expert for consulting on Bonding/Lamination of high pressure thermoplastic hose.
  • Expert in Issues with Belt Adhesion on Wide-Flat Conveyor Belt.
  • Adheisive expert for consulting on special bonding needs of motorcycle grip.
  • Expert in recycled rubber adhesive formulation for consulting on economical NR or similar rubber adhesive formulaiton.
  • Expert in polymers for consulting on bounding process to polyester thread in order to improve the adhesion between the polyester and rubber during the vulcanization process.
  • Adhesives expert for consulting on adhesive for polyolefin/polyethylene film with Velcro backing.
  • Expert in adhesive application for consulting on bonding polyester fabric to inside of injection-molded plastic dome mesh frame.
  • Expert in adhesive ultraviolet for consulting on pressure-sensitive adhesive for nylon luggage.
  • Expert in adhesives for consulting on butyl rubber soles onto polyurethane midsoles.
  • Expert in fabric encapsulation for consulting on reducing the cost of a product made of molded rubber.
  • Adhesives expert for consulting on finalize adhesive selection and process for fixing plastics to metal in an external industrial environment where corrosion is the key problem.
  • Expert for consulting on Production issues with rubber compounding
  • Expert for consulting on Caracterise the parameters who affect the tack on rubber.
  • Expert in Pre Preg Material Selection.
  • Surface tension measurement expert for consulting on measurement of adhesive peneration depth v.s gap.
  • Expert in EPDM Seal.
  • Expert in reverse engineering synthetic rubber for consulting rubber compounding for shoe industry.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert in sewer system for consulting on system backup and overflow.
  • Expert for consulting on Goodyear motorcycle tire failure.
  • Tire expert needed for consulting on motorcycle tire failure (Metzler tire).
  • Expert to testify on the availability of substitute substances to be used in lieu of asbestos in brake products.
  • Rim seal adhesion issue
  • Expert in polymer material engineering for litigation involving exercise/fitness ball explosion.
  • Formaldehyde expert or consulting on formaldehyde off-gassing in an RV.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Years   Country / Region   Summary
1998 to 1998   France   He consulted in the design, construction, and startup of a major water base adhesive mixing facility.

The facility is running smoothly.

1997 to 1997   United Kingdom   He audited the design and startup of a water base adhesive mixing facility.

His recommendations for equipment and process changes improved the operation significantly

1997 to 1997   France   He recommended changes to a textile treatment that resulted in greatly improved performance in a reinforced rubber product.

Additional Skills and Services:

He has delivered several courses on "Textile Adhesives and Adhesion."

Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

He has extensive contacts with all levels of associates at these manufacturers.

His network is global and includes chemical/fiber manufacturers, testing laboratories, and textile converters.

Other Skills and Services

He served as chairman of a technical awards committe for a previous employer. He evaluated the technical merit of many projects submitted for awards.


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