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 Expert  722721

Expert in Thermal and Fluid Systems Engineering Design, Analysis, Sizing, and Project Management

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Texas (TX)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has 36 years of experience in the analysis, design, and development of complex thermal systems for NASA and aerospace applications. During this time, Expert had a major role in defining the thermal system designs for the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, and the Apollo Command and Service Modules. He was also involved in many thermal system studies; thermal component research, development and technology advancement efforts; and preliminary design efforts that laid the ground work for the eventual hardware programs. Expert notes that the spacecraft thermal radiator is a heat exchanger that transfers the waste heat from the spacecraft coolant fluid to the radiation temperature environment of space. Thermal radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in a spacecraft radiator but forced convection inside the coolant fluid flow tubes and conduction through the panels are also important. Radiation heat flux values are relatively low for the typical temperatures of the waste heat and thus large areas are normally required to reject the heat. This imposes a significant weight penalty to the spacecraft and thus, optimization of the design is a high priority. The panels are typically coated with materials with high thermal radiation emissivity (i.e. emits large amount of energy in the infrared wave length) and low solar absorptivity (i.e. a good reflector of solar energy). Since the thermal radiation environments are cyclical in earth orbit, going from warmer on the sun side of the orbit and usually colder on the dark side, transient heat transfer is important in sizing a space radiator.

Expert led the program to design, develop, qualify and produce the International Space Station Heat Rejection Subsystem Radiator Assembly. Because of the developing nature of the International Space Station, the Radiator Assembly thermal design was redefined several times as the Space Station and interfacing systems configurations were changed by NASA and the prime contractors. Designs considered for the International Space Station as the Space Station configuration and assembly philosophy developed included:

1) Body mounted heat pipe radiators and pumped liquid radiators attached to the outside of the modules.

2) Large radiator array assembled in orbit from many (70) smaller elements, each one foot wide by 50 feet long and each containing two high capacity heat pipes. The assembled panels interfaced the two-phase condensing ammonia coolant fluid with a contact conductance heat exchanger.

3) The final design and the one now in orbit for International Space Station consists of six radiator assemblies, each stowed for launch in a volume of 9 feet by 12 feet by 2.7 feet and deployed in orbit to provide radiation heat transfer area of 1500 square feet and 11.7 kW of heat rejection (70 kW for six units). Heat is transported within the radiator system by circulated liquid ammonia. Many complex issues were addressed during the development of the final design, including whether to utilize a single phase or two-phase ammonia heat transport system, design of the system to continue operation at low heat load conditions with environments below ammonia freezing temperatures, the design of the system for deploying radiator panels, and how to best protect the fluid passages from micrometeoroid and space debris impacts.


fluid dynamics


fluid mechanics


fluid thermodynamic property


freezing/melting point


heat flux


heat generation


heat loss


multiphase heat transfer




thermal analysis


thermal efficiency


thermal energy storage


thermal modeling


thermal test


thermodynamic property


condensing thermodynamics


convection heating


coolant fluid


dynamic heat transfer


forced convection


heat capacity


heat conduction


heat convection


heat flow


heat radiation


heat transfer


infrared heat transfer


radiant heat transfer


radiation temperature


space hardware development


space station


space technology


thermal conductivity


thermal design


thermal transient


transient heat transfer


ammonia refrigeration


thermal technology


gas convection

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Dallas, Texas;  Fort Worth, Texas;  Arlington, Texas;  Plano, Texas;  Garland, Texas;  Irving, Texas;  Grand Prairie, Texas;  Mesquite, Texas;  Waco, Texas;  and Carrollton, Texas.

Often requested
with this expert:

Fine Particle Processing, Dispersion Engineering, Acoustic...
Microwave Heating Technology: Industrial, Ovens, Foods,...
Mechanical Engineering, Cavitation Erosion
Laser Welding, Laser Material, Laser Applications, etc.

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1964   M.S.   Mechanical Engineering   University of Southern California  
1961   B.S.   Mechanical Engineering   Oklahoma State University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

2000 to 2005


Expert Engineering Consulting (Self Employed)



Thermal Engineering Consultant


Expert is the owner and principal consultant specializing in thermal and fluid systems engineering.

1964 to 2000


Lockheed Martin


Missiles and Fire Controls


Program Manager


Expert had the following responsibilities during employment with Lockheed Martin (formerly Loral and LTV Aerospace):

Program Manager for the International Space Station Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) Radiators - October 1989 through September 2000. Directed all aspects of the HRS Radiator program including design, development, qualification, fabrication, cost/schedule and delivery. Six radiator assemblies delivered each weighing 2470 lbs with 1500 ft2 of radiation area when deployed in space.

Technical Project Manager for the International Space Station Heat Rejection conceptual and preliminary designs - September 1983 through October 1989. Performed design trade studies to optimize heat rejection system concepts in concert with the changing Prime Contractor Space Station concepts. Considered the latest technologies including two-phase heat transport systems, heat pipes, thermal storage, and capillary pumped loops. Prepared proposals for flight Heat Rejection System deployed radiator program. (Contract awarded.)

Technical Supervisor of a thermal control and fluid systems advanced design group - February 1976 through September 1983. Directed the development of new thermal control technologies, advanced thermal control system designs for large manned spacecraft, and spacecraft refrigeration systems designs including thermoelectric devices.

Assistant Project Engineer for the Space Shuttle Heat Rejection System - January 1975 through January 1976. Directed the development of fluid temperature control system and radiator system Freon coolant flow design. Managed fluid system component suppliers.

Thermal Engineer - August 1964 through December 1974. Performed mission simulation thermal modeling and analyses for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Radiator System, the Shuttle Freon Coolant Loop, the Apollo Fuel Cell System and Radiator and many other programs.

1961 to 1964


Rockwell International Corporation (Now Boeing)


Rocketdyne Division


Research Engineer


Expert's responsibilities at Rocketdyne consisted of development and testing of design modifications for centrifugal liquid propellant feed turbopumps for the Atlas and Saturn Rocket Engines.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert has now or has had the following professional association memberships: member of ASME for 24 years; member of SAE SC9 Thermal Control Committee for past 10 years; and, he served a three year term (maximum duration) on the AIAA Thermophysics Committee.


He is a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Texas.


Expert has received:

Defense Contractor Management Commander Outstanding Achievement Award (September 2000) for work on the International Space Station Heat Rejection Subsystem Contract

Loral Vought Systems Corp. Directors Appreciation Award (October 1993) for "Can Do" Attitude in conducting the Space Station Contract

NASA Certificate of Recognition for "Passive Self-Reprime Design for Arterial Heat Pipe", April 1991

LTV Missiles and Electronics Group Quarterly Outstanding Achievement Award for 1st Quarter 0f 1990

NASA Certificate of Recognition for "Round High Capacity Heat Pipe Evaporator Section", August 1987

NASA Apollo Achievement Award for Contributions to Apollo 11 successful mission (1969)

Publications and Patents Summary

He has published over 16 NASA and Air Force contractor reports and six technical papers in the field of spacecraft thermal control.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - SAE Paper  
 - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)  
 - NASA Conference Publication  
 - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)  
 - Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory  

Consulting Services:
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert in slug flow in cryogenic reboiler return line.
  • Expert for consulting on Solid State Recorder.
  • Expert for consulting on Tribology and Lubrication for Bearings.
  • Expert in evaporator condenser design needed for consulting on Heat exchanger design.
  • Air intake duct expert for consulting on impact of snow on an air intake plenum based on mass flux and height above grade.
  • Vibration expert for consulting on flow induced vibration thru a spillway trash rack.
  • TEMA heat exchanger expert for consulting on cooler design software.
  • Expert on engine coolants for consulting on engine coolant formulation and corrosion resistance.
  • Expert for consulting on Fluidic components used in life sciences.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert for consulting on value of used and damaged cryogenic tanks.
  • Space shuttle expert for consulting on trade secret issues.
  • Thermodynamics expert for consulting on thermal efficiency of polyurethane foam used to insulate refrigerated trailers.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Market Research:
Expert was involved in marketing and sales of thermal control systems to potential government and prime contractors for many years. His efforts were directly responsible for the award of the International Space Station heat rejection system radiators to Lockheed Martin in 1989.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

Expert participated in teaching a continuing education course on Aerospace Thermal Control at Lockheed Martin through Mountain View Community College for two separate semesters. Expert taught half the course in each of the two semesters, covering (1) Spacecraft Thermal Control and (2) Heat Pipe Theory. (The other half of the course, Aerodynamic Heating and Thermal Stress Analysis, covered under the same course, was taught by another individual for both semesters.)

Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

He was involved for many years selecting vendors for components and subsystems for thermal control systems. Some of the components for which vendors were selected were thermal control valves, heat pipes, heat exchangers, gearboxes, stepping motors, DC motors, and basic materials such as aluminum honeycomb and aluminum sheet materials, structural extrusions, and thermal control coatings.

Other Skills and Services

He developed several general computer programs for thermal analysis of combined thermal and fluid systems, and he developed a computer program to automatically adjust the elements of a thermal model based upon sparse test data.


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