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 Expert  722726

Expert in Metal Finishing, Parts Cleaning, Electroplating, Electroforming

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Minnesota (MN)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has production experience with cyanide copper, pyrophosphate, and acid copper plating baths. He has worked in a laboratory environment with both the fluoroborate and alkaline non-cyanide baths. He has used these baths for PWB plating, wafer plating, electroforming, plating on zinc diecast and aluminum, as well as standard steel substrates. He is familiar with typical troubleshooting techniques for these baths. He has worked with suppliers to install them in various facilities as well as providing training to the operators.

copper plating process

Expert has written a two-day training course on nickel electroforming. He has worked with the nickel sulfamate low stress bath as well as the low chloride Watts bath. He has experience in electroforming CD stampers, stencils, bellows, injection molding dies, and various other parts. He has set up electroforming baths for customers in the US, Canada, Japan and China. He has experience monitoring the electroforming baths both analytically and measuring the mechanical properties of the deposit. He has worked with electroforming parts from gold baths and copper baths as well as some nickel/cobalt alloys. He has worked with precision machining firms to produce mandrels of aluminum,copper, brass and nickel for production processes.


Expert has worked with the cyanide gold and sulfite gold plating baths. He is familiar with the equipment, processes, and procedures that must be controlled to provide a successful product such as barrel type and speed. Expert notes that anode size and location, filtration, and agitation rectification, such as pulse or direct all affect the plating distribution. The solution factors that affect the plating are metal concentration, pH, temperature, impurities, conductivity and additives. Gold is by far the most important plating used in the electronics industry and the amount of gold used on a project should be the minimum necessary to meet all the specification. Monitoring of the process for accountability, utilization and process control must also include preventing gold loss for any reason. Expert can assist with all of these matters.

gold electroplating process

Expert was the senior engineer in charge of the surface finish laboratory and the analytical laboratory for Honeywell, Inc. He provided analytical support and chemical testing for the production plating facility baths and cleaners as well as consulted with production engineering, research, and design on surface finishing processes. He worked with cyanide copper and acid copper plating, nickel and gold plating (both electrodeposited and electroless), tin and tin-lead alloy plating on many substrates, zinc plating (cyanide, alkaline, acid). Conversion coatings such as anodizing, chromating, metal coloring and oxide coatings. He has a good knowledge of the principles, strengths, and shortcomings of quality assurance and process control necessary for the production of acceptable parts.

plating process

Since 1965 Expert has been involved in most phases of metal finishing. Besides electroplating, he has worked with various conversion coatings such as anodizing, black oxides formation, and chromates. He has set up plating laboratories and small production shops and been involved in equipment design for large production facilities. In 1984 he became the plating troubleshooter working with many divisions of Honeywell. In 1985 he began teaching the introductory and advanced training courses in electroplating for the American Electroplating and Surface Finishing Society.

metal finishing process

Expert has worked with the Watts and sulfamate nickel baths in production. He also works with the Wood's nickel and Barrett sulfamate nickel strike baths. He has set up an electroforming production facility and consulted for various companies in many phases of electroforming. He has written training manuals and taught courses in electroforming for many companies. He has worked with nickel baths in reel-to-reel and rack and barrel applications. Expert has established analytical control of the baths, mechanical and physical testing of the nickel deposits.

nickel plating process

Although there are eight metals in the precious metal group, Expert's practical plating experience is with palladium, silver, platinum, and gold. He has also worked with both the electroless and electrodeposition formulations of various precious metal alloy baths. He is familiar with the analytical control of the bath makeup as well as physical testing of the deposits. His work is with precious metal plating for electronic applications and the disciplines of wirebonding and solderability. He is familiar with the many desired features of deposits used in electronics for the selection of one coating over another. The purpose and use of the finish are important factors in specifying a deposit besides just providing corrosion protection and conductivity. Expert can assist with all of these facets.

precious-metal plating process

As a consultant Expert works with many companies in surface cleaning and preparation for plating, painting, conversion coating, and adhesive bonding. Expert notes that the primary requirement for bonding to a substrate is a clean surface. He has worked with various methods of cleaning, both chemical and mechanical. He has worked with plasma cleaning for contaminate removal in preparation for wirebonding and die chip attachment. He as also provided assistance in cleaning contaminated plated surfaces for soldering.

surface preparation

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Minneapolis, Minnesota;  Saint Paul, Minnesota;  Burnsville, Minnesota;  Saint Cloud, Minnesota;  Eden Prairie, Minnesota;  and Minnetonka, Minnesota.

Often requested
with this expert:

Metal Finishing - From Anodizing to Zinc plating -...
Titanium & Aluminum Anodize, All Plating and Finishing
Metal Finishing
Precious Metal Plating

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1975   M.S.   Physics   St. Cloud State University  
1970   B.S.   Chemistry   St. Cloud State University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1993 to







Expert is a consultant to the metal finish industry. In addition, he teaches plating classes for the American Electroplating and Surface Finishing Society. He has written papers and articles on metal finishing for electronics, and is an Adjunct Professor at the College of St. Thomas.

1980 to 1993


Honeywell, Inc.




Sr. Engineer Materials


He was the lead engineer for the chemistry laboratory in the M&PE group. He was responsible for all forms of surface finishing.

1975 to 1980


Vision Ease Corp.


Division of BMC Industries


Chemical Process Engineer


Expert was hired to improve a cleaning, molding, and casting process for CR-39 ophthalmic lenses.

1965 to 1970


Honeywell, Inc.






He was responsible for the operation of the plating and analytical laboratory at the Hopkins facility.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member and instructor of Metal Finishing of the AESF. He teaches classes in introductory and advanced techniques.


He is a CEF-II specialist in electronics.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has written articles for “Metal Finishing” magazine and “Plating and Surface Finishing” magazine. He wrote a chapter on metal finishing for the engineering process book published by McGraw-Hill.

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Expert developed a nickel/gold electroforming process for bellows for an implantable hearing aid.
  • He designed and implemented an electroform mold operation for fiber optic cable connection. He designed the plating equipment and supervised its installation for an electroforming operation in China.
  • Expert worked on process improvement for a solder plating operation for COB.
  • He developed a silver metalization procedure for thick film circuits and non- conductive electrofoming mandrels.
  • Expert improved the zinc and cadmium plating and conversion coating procedure to meet the corrosion resistance specification of the product.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert for consulting on base material / non stick coating selection.
  • Expert in design plating for electrical contacts to reduce contact resistance.
  • Expert for consulting on reel to reel plating of gold.
  • Zinc plating expert for consulting on zinc plating on screw.
  • Expert in Cadmium Plating on H-11 Steel to assist with root cause analysis.
  • Corrosion expert for consulting on acme screw linear actuator outdoor applications.
  • Expert in Materials and plating recommendation for custom application.
  • Expert for consulting on Nickel Electroplating Troubleshooting.
  • Expert in passivation and cleaning of titanium anodization and metal parts to assist with automation.
  • Expert in metal plating to assist with problem resolution for Gold, nickel, tin and silver plating techniques.
  • Expert for consulting on Zinc plating on Steel parts.
  • Expert in Metal anodizing, electroless nickel, electroplate nickel.
  • Expert in in plating tin and tin over copper on austempered steel parts.
  • Expert in alkaline zinc plating needed to evaluate plating procedures.
  • Expert in electroforming I D'S.
  • Expert for consulting on Bright Tin/Lead plating recommendation.
  • Expert for consulting on Anodizing.
  • Expert for consulting on Vertical Electrolytic Plating - Acid Cu and Ni Strike to Inconel,Tophet-A and Ni-Fe.
  • Expert for consulting on Aluminum Etching.
  • Expert in Zinc Plating.
  • Expert consulting on Black Oxide.
  • Expert for consulting on Tests for aluminum anodized fittings.
  • Silver plating expert for consulting on Silver plateing and Hydrogen Embrittlement.
  • Zinc plating expert for consulting on Corrosion protection improvement - Acid Zn Plate w/ Tri Chrom.
  • Electroforming expert for consulting on Some electroforming and Ebonyl C coating.
  • Expert in tin plating problems.
  • Plating expert for consulting on help needed for costume jewelry plating processes.
  • Exper expert for consulting on Chemical presence in materials.
  • Expert in conversion coatings for aluminum for consulting on Conversion Coatings on Aluminum.
  • Expert for consulting on Troubleshooting gold plating discoloration issues, possibly corrosion.
  • Expert in Ti Plating.
  • Expert in silver plating over copper to assist with quality control issue.
  • Plating expert minnesota for consulting on Electroplating precious metals, masking parts.
  • Expert in electroless and electroplating of silver on ABS plastic and coating of silver via PVD.
  • Electroplating expert for consulting on cyanide-free plating.
  • Plating expert for consulting on electroplating tin over copper.
  • Electroplating expert for consulting on silver plating adhesion issues.
  • Chromium expert for consulting on historical industry experience related to processes involving chromium.
  • Expert in training electroforming for consulting on electroforming precision components.
  • Expert in chemical film for consulting on establishing a small chem film line.
  • Expert in titanium anodizing for consulting on anodizing titanium panels (flat or curved) and honeycomb core.
  • Expert in anodization of 7075 aluminum alloy for cause analysis of cosmetic color discolorations.
  • Expert in aerospace design for consulting on make-buy analysis of plating & heat treat operations, primarily on/of steel & aluminum parts.
  • Expert in chemical passivation for consulting on a training class to our chemical process department.
  • Expert for consulting on Stainless Steel Passivation.
  • Expert in Corrosion to assist with chemical reaction with 304SS.
  • Processing engineer plating expert for consulting on process engineer.
  • Plating expert for consulting on Discoloration of bright nickel plating on copper.
  • Zinc plating process expert for consulting on circuit board manufacturing issues.
  • Refractory metal expert for consulting on refractory metal issues.
  • Nickel corrosion expert for consulting on salt spray failure.
  • Expert for consulting on Type 2 Titanium Anodizing
  • Expert for consulting on Plating to secure a robust process
  • Expert for consulting on Metal Bellows for automotive
  • Expert for consulting on Corrosion Issues on Nickel Plated aluminum Block
  • Expert for consulting on Chrome Stripping Nickel Plating Inserts
  • Expert in hydrogen embrittlement.
  • Expert for consulting on Improvement of current Type II Titanium Anodizing process.
  • Gold plating expert in connecticut for consulting on Gold Plating bath analysis.
  • Expert for consulting on Metals needed.
  • Expert in 722726 for consulting on Electroless Plating on Polymer Substrate.
  • Nickel plating on wire expert for consulting on plating nickel onto berylium copper and tungsten wires.
  • Expert for consulting on Au plating porosity issue.
  • Expert for consulting on Electroforming.
  • Metal finishing expert for consulting on insignia manufacturing.
  • Electroplating expert for consulting on electroplating.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Wrote a deposition and expert witness for a patent infringement case.
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Electropolishing and black oxide expert for product liability expert.
  • Expert in electo-plating process for consulting on contract dispute.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Years   Country / Region   Summary
to   Canada   Expert is working with a firm that rebuilds jet engines. His work includes troubleshooting of plating procedures and eliminating hydrogen embrittlement problems.
1992 to 1992   Australia   He conducted a training course for acid copper plating in the PWB industry.
1993 to 1993   Singapore   Expert conducted a seven-day training course for engineers from various companies in metal finishing.
2003 to 2005   Japan   Documented cleaning and plating procedures for nickel,copper, gold and silver. Implemented material savings and reduced waste treatment costs. He helped with the expansion of the production line and employee involvement in solving production problems.
2003 to 2008   China   He designed the automatic plateing/cleaning line and supervised the installation and start-up of the equipment. He wrote the training manual which was then translated into Chinese for the operators.

Additional Skills and Services:

Expert developed a training course in metal finishing and electroforming. He is a guest speaker at St. Thomas University where he wrote the chapter on metal finishing for the graduate school process engineering classes.

Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

He has worked with many companies to select suppliers based on cost, raw material availability, and product producability.

Other Skills and Services

Expert has worked with the FDA in process and material acceptance for various devices.


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