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 Expert  722784

Expert in Process Engineering and Chemistry of Inorganic Chemicals

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has 20 years' experience in process design and operation of chlorine manufacturing facilities. He has worked on projects including the development of material and energy balances and the equipment sizing for a 15% chlorine plant expansion, troubleshooting a pressure drop problems in a chlorine pipeline, and modifying the liquefaction conditions to control the dissolved gas content in liquid chlorine. He has worked on the design and troubleshooting of the other units in chlorine plants, including brine systems, cellrooms, hydrogen plants (including Hg removal systems), caustic soda evaporation plants, hydrochloric acid burners, and sodium hypochlorite systems. He recently has completed a design study for a US client involving treatment options for the degas venting from a liquid chlorine transloading operation, comparing vapor recompression with chemical scrubbing and reduction with H2O2. Expert designed and supervised a materials corrosion study to identify an appropriate material of construction for chloroform reboiler, used for NCl3 destruction. He also continues to provide support to clients on the links between ammonia in salt and NCl3 in chlorine. Expert has worked as the technical expert for a secondary aluminum manufacturing in a claim for off-specification chlorine supply. For this case, he demonstrated the link between moisture in chlorine and manufacturing problems in aluminum refining. (He notes that chlorine is used to remove magnesium from molten aluminum, and the elevated moisture levels prevented separation of the two phases.) Expert also supervised the pilot plant work investigating the carbochlorination of aluminum oxide to give AlCl3, which lead to the design of a carbochlorination reactor.



chlorine gas


chlorine manufacturing

Expert has over 20 years' experience working with sodium hypochlorite. Some example projects include modifications to chlorine tail gas systems to improve bleach quality and/or to reduce bleach quantity, as well as providing consulting services for continuous bleach manufacturing units, including high strength bleach production. He has worked with various hypochlorite producers to identify the most economic technology for hypochlorite decomposition (typical choices include various reducing agents or fixed bed catalysts). For these studies, the material and energy balances are developed, and the variable costs associated with chemical reduction are compared with the capital costs for catalytic hypo destruction. In another case, a repackager experienced an episode of swelling bleach bottles, which was a safety concern on store shelves. He worked with the repackagers and the hypochlorite producer to identify the root cause of the problem, which was corrected, and the problem has not recurred.

sodium hypochlorite


sodium hypochlorite production




chlorine bleach


hypochlorous acid





Expert has over 20 years' experience working in the chlor-alkali industry. He has worked on hydrochloric acid projects including the manufacture from strong chlorine gas as well as from chlorine tail gas. The relative merits of each have been reviewed, and the impact of burning tail gas on plant capacity and costs has been estimated. Expert demonstrated the link between hydrogen gas quality and instabilities in burner operations. This lead to changes in operating procedures that have eliminated the quality problems. He also worked on various projects to improve product color, including improved strength control, and reduced HCl color; several low-cost techniques were developed to convert high color HCl to low-color HCl. He has also worked with HCl storage, loading and unloading systems, on projects aimed at reducing emissions of HCl (with the side benefit of improving strength control). He has developed the application information for air permits for HCl scrubbing and storage systems.

hydrochloric acid


hydrogen chloride


hydrogen chloride absorption

Expert has over 20 years' experience in the chlor-alkali industry. He has worked on projects in all areas of the chlor-alkali plant: salt quality, brine fabrication, cellroom operations and current efficiency (diaphragm and membrane), chlorine plant operations, caustic soda evaporation, hydrochloric acid production, and sodium hypochlorite production. He has worked with production and marketing staff on product quality issues from incoming salt and water through all plant products. He has also worked on variable cost reduction projects in the at the chlor-alkali facility, and developed capital and variable cost estimates, in order to evaluate the relative merits of these improvement projects. A number of such projects have been implemented, and the clients have received paybacks of 1-3 years. These projects have involved all three cell types: membrane, diaphragm, and mercury. He has also worked on projects involving potash and caustic potash production.

chloralkali production


chlorine chemistry



Expert has worked with caustic soda evaporation equipment for both diaphragm and membrane grades. Projects include material and energy balancing to identify process pinch points in support of capacity expansion, expanding vacuum eductor capacity to improve capacity and performance, as well as troubleshooting when performance has been lost. Other projects include caustic soda quality projects to ensure that customer get the best choice of caustic soda. He has designed an alkaline CO2 absorption column for a client. The client has a batch alkaline scrubber, and absorbs CO2 from a cogeneration facility. The resulting soda ash solution is used for water treatment (calcium removal).

sodium hydroxide plant engineering


sodium hydroxide


sodium hydroxide plant


carbon dioxide absorption


sodium carbonate

Expert has over 20 years' experience working in support of the sulfuric acid industry, with projects from manufacturing through marketing to waste acid recovery. Manufacturing projects include analysis of SO3 absorption column to reduce pressure drop, as well as product decolorization work to bring smelter product to commercial specification. He has worked on waste acid recovery projects including smelter weak acids and those from organics manufacturing operations. Typical acids include those from the manufacture of secondary butyl alcohol (SBA), RDX/HMX spent acids, as well as those the bleed acids form copper electrowinning operations. He has also worked with marketing staff to understand the swings in world sulfur/sulfuric acid flows, and their impact on both import and export prices. In addition, expert has supported projects to assist customers in acquiring more valuable local customers (such as pulp mill ClO2 customers) rather than relying on more distant and less profitable phosphate accounts.

sulfuric acid


sulfuric acid manufacturing

Expert has a Ph.D. in hydrocarbon catalysis. His industrial experience has involved work with a variety of commercial reactors, including fixed bed catalytic (gas and liquid feeds) and two-liquid phase mixed reactors. He was worked on commercial applications that require unusual design approaches, such as NCl3 destruction in the reboiler of a distillation column and treating chemicals in trucks and tank cars to adjust quality on the way to a customer site, and the use of a laminar flow tank to provide residence time for sulfuric acid decolorization. He teaches chemical reaction engineering at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels at a local university, and well versed in the mathematical tools of residence time distributions.

chemical reaction engineering


chemical plant design

Expert's consulting business focuses on the manufacture, sales, and use of inorganic chemicals. The chemicals supported include the inorganic acids: HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, and H3PO4; the inorganic bases: NaOH and KOH (and their carbonate solutions); the inorganic oxidizers: H2O2, NaOCl, NaClO3 as well as the hypochlorite derivatives used for swimming pools; and the inorganic reducing agents: SO2 (and sulfite solutions), sulfide solutions, and H2O2. He works with large-scale manufacturers of these chemicals as well as small-scale chemical repackagers. Projects Expert has worked on include economic reviews, health and safety reviews, process design, and process troubleshooting. Example design projects include working with small chemical firms on the design and operation of calcium nitrate production (used as a concrete additive), and the design of vessels and ventilation for peroxyacetic acid production. Examples of safety projects include developing the procedures for cleaning drums to enable them to be reused, and preparing the application for air permits for scrubbers and storage tanks. Larger scale chemical manufacture projects include the various products used as alternatives to road salt (such as potassium acetate and magnesium chloride).

inorganic acid


inorganic base


inorganic chemistry


oxidizing agent chemistry


oxidation reaction






peroxyacetic acid


chlorine dioxide generation


air dispersion


air modeling


emission modeling


dispersion modeling

Expert has over 20 years' experience working in the inorganic chemicals industry, particularly focused on the manufacture and use of inorganic acids and bases. He has worked on ammonium nitrate production in draft-tube neutralization reactors. He has worked on troubleshooting an NOx emission problem from an AN draft tube reactor. Expert is currently working on a research project with the goal of developing a mathematical model of the liquid circulation in an ammonium nitrate neutralizer. This model will investigate the effect of design variables (height and diameter) on the liquid circulation rate, and hence, on the temperature and pressure profile in the draft tube. Knowledge of the temperature profile will provide an ability to predict NOx emissions, as nitrate decomposition is a function of temperature.

ammonium nitrate

Expert has experience in diaphragm and membrane chlorine manufacture and sodium chlorate manufacture, and reduction to chlorine dioxide. He has worked on membrane and chlorate brine quality projects, as well as current efficiency problems in both types of cellrooms. He has worked on the H2 scrubbing columns of a sodium chlorate plant, as well as developing options for destruction of the residual sodium hypochlorite in the mother liquor, as alternatives of hydrogen peroxide. He has worked on ClO2 generation systems, including integrated processes and sulfuric acid/methanol systems. He is able to assist in troubleshooting problems with these reacting systems.

sodium chlorate


sodium chlorate production


bleach plant

Expert has over 20 years' experience working in the SO2 industry, with SO2 sources being both sulfur-burned and metallurgical. He has worked on projects to generate SO2-water solutions, sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite solutions, as well as liquid SO2. He has worked with a client to resolve product quality issues in the reduction of nitric acid by SO2. He is knowledgeable about the design and operation of the equipment for manufacture of all of these products. Expert has worked with a variety of customers on the use of these products, including tank car and trailer unloading systems, vaporizers as well as tail gas absorbers. He also has worked on the optimization of chemical addition systems to control both the pH and ORP of these systems. The predominant base used in these systems is sodium due to cost, but he is knowledgeable about potassium and magnesium based systems as well. Expert notes that the use of solid metabisulfite to give bisulfite, or in place bisulfite is also possible.

bisulfite compound


sodium bicarbonate


magnesium bisulfite


sodium bisulfite


sodium metabisulfite




sulfurous acid

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise

Often requested
with this expert:

Process Engineering, Inorganic Chemicals: Chloralkali,...
Chemical Process and Design
Chemical Process Engineering
Extractive-Metallurgy, Hydro-Metallurgy, Pyro-Metallurgy,...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1989   Ph.D.   Chemical Engineering   University of Toronto  
1985   M.A.Sc.   Chemical Engineering   University of Toronto  
1983   B.A.Sc.   Chemical Engineering   University of Toronto  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

2002 to


(Undisclosed Consulting Company)





Expert operates an engineering consultancy, specializing in the process engineering and troubleshooting of inorganic chemicals. His areas of expertise range from the manufacture to end use of these products, with projects ranging from evaluating new chemical products and processes to debottlenecking studies, and root cause identification of process upsets.

1989 to 2002




Pioneer Technology Centre


Senior Research Engineer


He worked as a process engineer supporting the manufacture of chlor-alkali and sulfur-based chemicals. Projects included the debottlenecking of a caustic soda evaporation facility, and design of equipment to permit at 15% increase in chlorine capacity, and design of a hypochlorite treatment system. Troubleshooting work includes root cause evaluation of pressure drop in a 7-mile chlorine pipeline, and identifying appropriate materials of construction for a chlorine reboiler. Other work includes developing processes for recovering the waste sulfuric acid generated at metals smelters and silicone manufacturers.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering (CSChE).


He is a Licensed Profession Engineer with Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO).

Professional Appointments

Expert is Past-Chair of the Catalysis Division of the Chemical Institute of Canada. He is on the Board of Directors of the Canadian Catalysis Foundation, a non-profit organization supporting catalysis research in Canada.

Publications and Patents Summary

He has two patents awarded in the sulfuric acid processing field. He has co-authored 13 publications in refereed publications, and three publications in trade publications.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Pulp and Paper Canada  
 - American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)  
 - International Symposium on Drying, Roasting, Calcining and Acid Plant Design and Operation  
 - Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference  

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • A client manufactures sanitizing products for the commercial and consumer marketplace, and they wished to expand into the peroxyacetic acid product line. Manufacture of the product is simple; however, the ventilation system needed to be designed to minimize air extraction from the building while removing acetic acid odors. A design was prepared, and air permits were obtained for the system.
  • Following the start-up of a new 7-mile Cl2 pipeline, the customer experienced fouling of their vaporizer, leading to frequent shutdowns for cleaning (every two months). This raised the concern about pipeline corrosion. Expert was part of the joint technical team tasked with resolving the problem. He developed an understanding of the mechanism for residue formation in the pipeline. The theory was tested through developing a mathematical model of the pipeline and comparing the model results with pipeline performance. Both management teams accepted the team's recommendations. There have been no problems since the solutions were implemented. More importantly, the solutions implemented required no new capital outlay.
  • A client sells sodium hypochlorite solution to various companies that dilute and package the bleach for the consumer market. One of their customers experienced several episodes of swelling bleach bottles leading to bottles falling off the shelves in the stores, which they attributed to the client's product. He directed a study that demonstrated that the sodium hypochlorite was not decomposing into O2. In addition, the study demonstrated a weakness in the design of the bleach bottles. The root cause was shown to be the gas impermeable seal applied to the bottle; a slight warming of the bleach (10°C) above the filling temperature was sufficient to swell the bottles. The customer has since modified their bottle sealing operation, and the problem has never returned.
  • A pulp mill operates a chlor-alkali facility and also produces high strength sodium hypochlorite for sale. Off-spec batches were sent to the effluent treatment pond, and the combination of high pH and oxidant level led to significant upsets. A series of technical options for treating the hypochlorite were identified and the capital and operating costs of each were estimated. A preferred option was identified, and the customer is moving forward to install the necessary equipment.
  • A secondary aluminum producer experienced severe process upsets while working with one supplier's chlorine (chlorine is added to remove magnesium from molten aluminum). Expert performed a process chemistry review, and demonstrated the link between elevated moisture levels in the chlorine and the quality problems experienced in the aluminum treatment system. The report was presented to the chlorine supplier, who then agreed to pay costs.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert for consulting on Chlorine gas regeneration.
  • Expert in Potassium Hydroxide Manufacturing.
  • Expert in chlorine for consulting on unloading facility feasibility study.
  • Expert in Seeking Chemical System.
  • Expert in Chlorine Dioxide handling.
  • Chemical engineer expert for chlorine dioxide for consulting on Chlorine Dioxide.
  • Water treatment expert for consulting on the use of sodium metabisulfite / sodium bisulfite as anti-chlor.
  • Chlorine manufacture expert for consulting of chlor alkai manufacturing recommendations and improvements.
  • Chlorine manufacturing expert for consulting on assessment of manufacturing plant.
  • Expert in chlorine gas for consulting on water treatment, how best mixed with liquid ammonia sulfate.
  • Expert in chlor-alkali for consulting on technologies for water treatment and purification.
  • Expert in biochemistry for consulting on removal of natural gas stream using sodium hydroxide..
  • Expert for consulting on bloated bottles containing bleach.
  • Expert in Ventilation of CLO2 gas and disintegration of CLO2 in water.
  • Expert in chlorine liquefaction troubleshooting for consulting on Chlorine Liquefier corrosion and blockages of downstream equipment.
  • Expert for consulting on Chemical / Sodium Hypochlorite Expert
  • Expert for consulting on Increase capacity from 60-82 KTPA sulfuric acid plant.
  • Heat exchanger scaling expert for consulting on Plate Heat Exchanger Scaling in an Industrial Water Desalination Plant.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert in Chlor-alkali manufacture processes.
  • Expert for consulting on potassium hydroxide exposure.
  • Expert in water treatment chemistry for litigation involving chlorine/calcium hypochlorite explosion causing injury.
  • Acid leaching expert for consulting on Sulphuric Acid.
  • Expert in review of sodium hypochlorite for consulting on production facility.
  • Expert for consulting on sulfuric acid drain unclogging product.
  • Hydrogen peroxide expert for consulting on peracetic acid.
  • Chemical engineering expert needed for legal case.
  • Gas cylinder expert for itigation case involving chlorine gas cylinders defect.
  • Tank car expert for consulting on negligent maintenance of unloading cap on rail tank car.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Language Skills:
Foreign Language   Description
French   Expert works with several clients in Quebec. He reads and speaks French, and can write acceptably.

Market Research:
He has worked with a number of clients investigating the commercial potential for new (or improved) product grades in the marketplace. These are technocommercial studies, and lead to development of initial customer lists, market potential, as well as lists of existing competitors, as well as the overall economic merits of the project.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

Expert works as an Adjunct Professor in Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto, lecturing on the subject of chemical process design studies. He also has lectured on process design, separation processes, and applied thermodynamics.


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