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 Expert  722852

Expert in Combustion, Incineration, Heat Transfer, Air Pollution Control

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Pennsylvania (PA)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
Expert has been involved in combustion since his early days as a "Fuels Engineer;” this involved working with furnaces such as open hearths for melting scrap into steel, soaking pits, etc. Later, he developed burner designs for oil, gas, and combination oil/gas, which involved laboratory testing of a range of burner sizes from 0.5 MM Btu/hr to 12 MM Btu/hr. Part of the development was proper location of ignition source, be it spark-ignited or gas pilot ignited. The rich and lean limits of the burner design had to be developed for flashback and blowout. This development continued into heavier fuel oils such as numbers 5 and 6 and Bunker C Oil. This experience allowed application of this know-how for burning waste fuels with very high viscosities and containing halogenated hydrocarbons, sulfur, phosphorous and nitrogen bearing fuels. Burner designs used high intensity combustion with swirling (vortex) flames. Combustion efficiencies reached levels well above 99.9% combustion efficiency. A great deal of field experience followed with installations in the chemical, petrochemical process industries for industrial and hazardous waste incineration applications. As a project engineer, Expert designed incineration systems for destruction of halogenated liquid wastes, complete with waste recovery boilers and acid recovery systems. Air pollution control systems were designed and applied to meet the RCRA regulations for particulate and acid gas removal. The combustion process had to meet the 99.99% destruction and removal efficiency of the toxic, hazardous components in the waste. His activities in the chemical process industries led to solutions for disposal of liquid wastes from the agricultural and pharmaceutical processes. These wastes were a combination of a high aqueous waste with organics and inert solids. Expert led the development of incinerators to destroy these wastes starting in the late 1970s through the 1980s. His background in high temperature heat transfer led to development and application of heat recovery heat exchangers for installation on VOC oxidizers for energy recovery. These high alloy tubular heat exchangers were designed to recover energy from oxidizers operating at 1800 F at a recovery efficiency of 70%. This experience was used in the liquid incinerator heat recovery designs. After 30 years with Thermal Research which was later Trane Thermal (1954-1984), Expert founded an engineering consulting firm. Most of the projects at that company dealt with design and retrofit of existing incineration systems requiring permitting under the RCRA regulations. This involved preliminary test burns, retrofit design and construction, final permit application including trial burn plans and implementation of the trial burn plan. Negotiations with state and federal permitting agencies were part of the procedures including public meetings with citizens. This work extended his expertise in combustion into the solid waste area, including hazardous, medical and municipal waste applications. Many clients were large commercial operations with rotary kilns and secondary combustion chambers with total heat release from the combustion of all wastes at 150 MM Btu/hr. Expert was called upon by the US EPA to serve as a peer reviewer for new regulations promulgated by the EPA. His expertise in the area of dioxin formation from combustion sources has enabled him to serve as an expert witness in many lawsuits where the plaintiff has considered dioxin a contaminant.



boiler combustion




hazardous waste fuel combustion


hazardous waste incineration




waste burning


propane combustion


combustion engineering


fuel oil combustion

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: New York, New York;  Newark, New Jersey;  Jersey City, New Jersey;  Paterson, New Jersey;  Elizabeth, New Jersey;  Trenton, New Jersey;  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;  Allentown, Pennsylvania;  Reading, Pennsylvania;  and Baltimore, Maryland.

Often requested
with this expert:

Combustion, Heat Transfer, Process Furnaces, Incineration,...
Boiler Combustion, Boiler Air Pollution Control, Utility...
Incineration Technology and Other Thermal Technologies for...
Combustion, Air Pollution, Waste Destruction, Energy,...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1957   M. S.   Mechanical Engineering   Drexel University  
1950   B. S.   Mechanical Engineering   Drexel University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1993 to 1997


RMT, Inc.




Senior Consultant


1984 to 1993


Four Nines, Inc



Principal, Senior Consulatant


Expert was owner and Principal. He consulted with clients for projects involving permitting, testing, and design for combustion systems on furnaces, boilers, kilns, hazardous waste incinerators, thermal oxidizers, and industrial furnaces.

1954 to 1984


Trane Thermal Co.



Vice President and General Manager


He was VP and GM in his last 10 years there overseeing a sales, design, and manufacturing operation. The products were combustion equipment used in chemical pharmaceutical, ceramic, aircraft, steel, and similar industries. His previous positions at the company included engineering and sales VP for the same products and clients. As an engineer, he designed combustion, incineration, heat transfer, energy recovery systems, and air pollution control systems for solids, liquids and gaseous waste streams. He designed heat transfer equipment for utilities to vaporize liquid natural gas, and designed heat exchangers (fired) for aircraft test facilities.

1953 to 1954


Ballinger Co



HVAC Engineer


Expert designed steam heating system for a high school in Philadelphia, PA. He designed the HVAC system used the in cafeteria and kitchen for a new high school construction.

1951 to 1953


US Army



1st Lt - Maintenance Platoon Leader


He was a platoon leader in Korea for a 60-man platoon including operators, mechanics, and truck drivers. He maintained and built artillery reinforcements, and maintained and built main supply routes to front lines.

1950 to 1951


Lukens Steel Co



Plant and Fuels Engineer


Expert did plant engineering design for steel soaking pits and open-hearth furnaces. He served as a fuel engineer for nine months prior to departure for service in Korean conflict.

1947 to 1949


Lukens Steel Co.


Plant Engineering


Design Draftsman


He was employed as a co-op student for two six-month programs in the Plant Engineering Dept. He assisted senior designers in calculations and drawings for steel mill equipment, rolling mills, open hearth furnace refractory, burners, pumps, structural steel, etc.

1946 to 1946


Globe Automatic Sprinkler Co.






Expert spent six months as a co-op student assisting designers and sales personnel with automatic fire sprinkler layouts. He surveyed buildings for sales proposals, and laid out systems for sales proposals and for final system installation.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of ASME, AWMA, and AIChE.


He is a Registered Professional Engineer in Pennsylvania.


Expert was promoted to Fellow in ASME, 2002. He achieved a 50-year membership in ASME in 2000. He was Chairman of ASME's Philadelphia, Pennsylvania section in 1976. He received the ASME Pioneer Award at the International Incineration Conference (IT3) in Phoenix, AZ, May, 2007. This award is given to the engineer who has provided his technical expertise in areas of research, development, practical design, testing and operation of combustion, incineration, waste heat recovery and air pollution control for the disposal of waste solids, liquids and gases for industrial applications.

Publications and Patents Summary

He has over 100 papers presented at engineering conferences and seminars, has written and presented courses to engineering society conferences, USEPA, State permit writers, and industrial plant operators since 1984. He has five patents related to his fields of expertise in combustion and heat transfer. He has authored a recent book on incineration, has contributed to "Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook" - 7th edition in 1997 and a chapter in the 8th edition published in 2007.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  
 - McGraw-Hill  

Government Experience:
Years   Agency   Role   Description
1984 to 1997   US EPA   Peer Review   Expert served as peer reviewer in many instances for the US EPA. These included review of Part B Permit instructions and procedures for the RCRA permitting process. Also for the MACT rules issued on Sept. 30, 1999, he reviewed the draft rules from an engineering standpoint.
1985 to 1985   US EPA   Instructor   He provided 20 hours of course instruction for government, state permit writers for the RCRA permitting process for incinerators. Industry professionals were also included as students. Courses were given in five locations across the USA in the fall of 1985.
1990 to 1992   Ohio EPA   Instructor   Expert provided a two-day course to 25-30 members of the agency involved in permitting hazardous waste incinerators under RCRA. These were done twice over the two- year period.
1990 to 1990   US EPA   Peer Review   He reviewed research reports associated with the new Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations. The reports covered burning in boilers for energy recovery wastes that were listed in the Regulations as hazardous under Section VIII.

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Expert advised the engineers at Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY on burning scrap film and paper from their film making processes. He designed and supervised tests that established the performance of a 150,000-lb/hr boiler fired on No. 6 fuel oil and scrap film and paper. Existing operation produced high CO, high hydrocarbons and particulate emissions. Grates in boiler had a very short life due to burnout in ash pit of the scrap materials. Following tests, a redesign of burners was made including new overfire air nozzles to distribute secondary air. Boiler tube locations were also redesigned. He supervised the design effort, purchasing of fabricated items, and supervision of field installation. Tests followed final installation, and results showed reduced CO levels from 2000 ppm to less than 50 ppm, and scrap materials burned in suspension reducing grate burnout problems. The boiler firing rate with scrap allowed system to increase steam output from 65,000 lb/hr to well over 100,000 lb/hr. The entire program lasted two and a half years.
  • He tested a liquid waste incinerator fired on No. 6 fuel oil and natural gas at a rate of 80 million Btu/hr. Capacity was limited on fuel oil to 40 million Btus due to the configuration of wastewater nozzles and a lack of secondary air to wastes. Exhaust gases discharged into a waste heat boiler. The system was redesigned with twelve waste injectors, instead of three. Waste fumes containing 19% oxygen were used to supply secondary air to nozzles. A short flame high intensity burner replaced a long flame laminar burner. The system was capable of attaining full capacity with emission reductions of CO and THC, capable of the RCRA standards.
  • Expert assisted a commercial incinerator operator, Rollins Environmental Services in Baton Rouge, LA. Using the oxygen sensor in the secondary combustion chamber, auxiliary fuel in SCC was controlled by oxygen. This reduced the spikes created by solid wastes introduced into the kiln, the primary combustion zone. As fuel rich wastes were introduced, sufficient oxygen was unavailable to supply the combustion air requirements to the system. The oxygen analyzer in the SCC reduced the firing rate of the auxiliary burner in the secondary to prevent high CO and THC emissions. The temperatures in SCC were held steady reducing overheating and refractory damage to the SCC.
  • He assisted in a test programs for a coal-fired boiler in an industrial plant. The burner was a cyclone type operating at excess air levels of 5-10% on coal. The burner chamber had air controlled as primary, secondary, and tertiary. Due to low excess air and maximum turbulence with cyclone burner, slag from coal created particulate emissions into local neighborhoods. By testing at varying rates of the three air sources, a combination was found to reduce emissions from the electrostatic precipitator to acceptable levels. The test program lasted eight days in field.
  • Expert designed a test program for a pharmaceutical client burning liquid waste solvents and contaminated activated carbon. The system was a rotary kiln, SCC with a Venturi scrubber (particulate removal) and two absorbers for HCl and chlorine removal. Loading of activated carbon bags was a major problem. Sizing bags to provide a continuous feed rather than batch feed eliminated spikes that had existed, and relocation of the solvents burner in the kiln and secondary reduced carryover problem of carbon. Expert redesigned the Venturi scrubber to provide emission control required by regulations. This included cooling by fresh water of 1800-degree Fahrenheit gases rather than use a recycled saltwater solution that existed. This reduced the plume from the stack and allowed emissions to be within regulations. The total time in the field with initial tests and final tests was three weeks.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Industrial incinerator design expert for consulting on determine design specification for optimum performance.
  • Propane expert for consulting on use of propane to simulate a large wood bonfire.
  • Expert in control valves for consulting on design to burner assembly.
  • Venturi scrubber expert for consulting on scrubber equipment.
  • Expert in refractory design engineer for consulting on TOCDF Refractory.
  • Baghouse expert for consulting on Conversion of Electrostatic Precipitators to Baghouse Fiilter for Coal Fired Power Station.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Expert has served as an expert witness in 28 cases since 1985. He has been deposed in 15 cases and appeared as a witness at trial in 11 cases. Two of these included the Queen's Court in London for cases originating in Scotland and England. In most cases he has been the expert for the defendant including class action suits. He has also represented the government (plaintiff) in a few cases.
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert in Incinerator Technology Issues for consulting on trade secret case.
  • Thermal oxidizer expert witness for consulting on air quality issues.
  • Expert in coke ovens, asbestos& refractory for consulting on mesothelioma professional liability case.
  • Expert witnesses on furniture design for consulting on Furniture Design Patent Infringement.
  • Thermal boiler expert for consulting on retrofitting to reduce emissions from stack.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Years   Country / Region   Summary
1964 to 1964   Japan   Expert visited a Japanese firm to establish a licensing relationship for combustion equipment and waste incineration processes. He spent three weeks visiting plant sites and finally signed a license agreement for his employer, Thermal Research & Engineering Corp (TREC). He provided a design for TREC that generated over $5 million per year over next 30 years.
1974 to 1974   Germany   He consulted with BASF in Ludwigshavenm, Germany on a waste liquids incinerator. Design was supplied by his parent company in USA. BASF would construct equipment to our specifications. The proprietary portion of design was licensed to BASF. The purpose of his visit was to negotiate a license and insure its use on a single project.
1993 to 1994   England   Expert served as an expert witness in a case involving emissions from a client's PCB incinerator in Scotland. He had to determine the effectiveness of the incinerator design along with the air pollution control system to minimize emissions to local community. He did a detailed review of the equipment, reviewed data obtained during test programs, and provided opinion to client (defendant) through law firm. He testified in court in London over a three-day period. The main concern was dioxin emissions from system.

Language Skills:
Foreign Language   Description
Italian   Expert can read Italian well but is not as proficient in speaking technical terms. He speaks "social" rather than "technical" Itialian.
Spanish   He can read (and translate) some Spanish.

Additional Skills and Services:

He has given seminars and training courses in combustion, incineration, heat transfer, and air pollution control since 1980. These courses were part of national conferences by Air and Waste Management Association, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Gas Association, and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He has also taught at Drexel University Graduate school courses involving Hazardous waste Incineration as well as Municipal Solid Waste Disposal. He also has given training courses for operators and supervisors at industrial sites. He also has trained Federal and State permit writers on topics of incineration.


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