ORC Expert Advisory Services ORC International

  home    |    find an expert    |    request an expert    |    join our network    |    about us     expert login  
Expert Consulting and Expert Witness Services
  search tips 
Share this page:  Send to LinkedIn Send to Facebook Tweet This Email Print

 Expert  722859

Expert in Solid-State Polymer Characterization

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

Missouri (MO)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise:

Listed with other top experts in: 

In 1992 Expert began supporting a growth program focused on the new field of intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs). Expert had the responsibility for obtaining the processing and characterization resources required to support the project. Expert spent one week per month at the University of Minnesota working on the project. One of the resources that Expert found especially valuable was the small capacity of the processing equipment. Meaningful results could be gotten on 10-gram-sized laboratory materials using basic processing equipment such as a roll mill, laboratory twin-screw extruder and a compression mold. The processed materials were characterized using dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and direct voltage conductivity. Expert and the ICP team decided to initially focus on processing a common conductive polymer known as polyaniline, a linear polymer made from aniline. He and a U of MN student carried out a thorough evaluation of formulations consisting of polyvinyl chloride, and some common PVC plasticizers. This system was chosen because plasticizers were known to induce the formation of some complex morphology that could provide connectivity between domains, which should enhance conductivity. The propensity for a given formulation containing all the components required to form a conducting network after processing was evaluated from the curve of conductivity versus polyaniline content. In another instance, Expert also carried out some fiber spinning studies using a simple wet-spinning line. In conventional wet-spinning a polar polymer such as polyacrylonitrile is dissolved in a solvent to form a viscous solution known as a spinning dope and this is then coagulated using a spin-bath fluid that is not a solvent for the polymer. Expert proposed that the soluble form of polyaniline prepared by Kinlen might be dissolved along with the polyacrylonitrile and that under conditions not yet experimentally determined the precipitation of the polyacrylonitrile and soluble polyaniline would lead to a co-continuous conductive network. A patent was issued for this approach Finally, Expert was involved in the characterization of some polyaniline-based films made from an emulsion process followed by precipitation that produced conductive dispersions of rods on the order of microns.

electrically conductive polymer


intrinsically conductive polymer

Expert notes that thermal analysis has come to mean a collection of individual techniques in which a small amount of sample is heated (or cooled) at a constant rate while the value of some physical or chemical parameter, such as heat capacity or sample thickness, is monitored. Expert's expertise in the use of this equipment was very valuable to his company in several different areas of research. What follows is a sampling of selected highlights of his work in this area. As part of his assignment Expert was asked to investigate water/fiber interactions relevant to the fiber spinning process. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) was used to study the decrease in melting point that occurs when water is added to an acrylic polymer. Expert showed that a similar process occurs during one of the processing operations that builds fibrillation resistance into the fiber. Process modifications without this feature would be problematical. His work lead to a patented analytical method for measuring comonomer level in acrylic polymers. In another case, Expert used TGA (thermo gravimetric analysis) to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-oxidant package used in the manufacturing of polyvinylbutyral. Replacement candidates were chosen by first looking at their TGA thermograms, and then proceeding to larger scale plant trials. Because Expert was able to develop this screening test the first trials could be done on a small scale thereby saving the company the expense of larger trials in the plant. That became a common theme in Expert's work. In a third example, he used DSC to study the crystallization of herbicides from concentrated solutions. Crystallization tends to occur when the concentrate is stored unheated in warehouses and Expert found the DSC data valuable in searching for crystallization inhibitors thereby helping to insure the quality of his company's product. In a fourth example, Expert used TMA (thermo mechanical analysis) to demonstrate that the amount of sample expansion upon heating reflected the level of stress trapped in automobile interior parts as a result of the extrusion operation. The stress can cause the part to warp in painting ovens, and Expert used the TMA as a tool for understanding the problem and explaining it to the process engineers. Lastly, Expert notes that nutraceuticals are food additives that can lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream but tend to be very crystalline so they tend to remain in the stomach. Certain polymeric additives reduce crystallinity and that leads to improved absorption. DSC and x-ray diffraction are the two analytical techniques that Expert used to construct the phase diagrams that pointed the way to improved performance and the right direction for future work in that area. Expert interfaced the DSC with a fiber-optic probe that allowed him to monitor sample transparency during the DSC run as part of a study of polymer miscibility.

polymer thermal analysis

Expert provided leadership in the area of polymer mechanical properties for over 28 years. His customers were the R&D groups from the fibers, plastics, and coatings businesses. His method of operation was to acquire and/or purchase use time on sophisticated characterization equipment that would be applied to the problem at hand. He leveraged his resources by working closely with experts at facilities such as the Materials Research Center at the University of Minnesota. While in Fibers Expert was able to use the stress-strain curves generated by a physical testing machine to rapidly assess the degree of molecular orientation in the unordered regions of acrylic fiber. This parameter correlated very well with both the dye uptake and the tendency to fibrillate during carpet wear and hence it was included in total quality improvements for these products. Expert investigated the mechanism by which shrinkage in high-pressure steam improved the balance of mechanical properties and concluded that this process step could not be easily replaced. This work lead to a patented method for fiber compositional analysis that was used in the plant for many years. After the Fibers company assignment, Expert transferred to Plastics where he focused on the instrumental requirements for the measurement of toughness in engineering thermoplastics. He collaborated with manufacturing and R&D in this effort. The major products were ABS and nylon thermoplastic molding resins. Equipment was obtained for measuring toughness over a wide range in temperature and impact rate. Potential customers appreciated seeing improvements in toughness behavior under realistic conditions. Expert personally studied nylon, which featured a very high softening temperature range, but was relatively brittle at room temperature. He explained the excellent toughness of ABS-nylon alloys in terms of the morphology. When an automobile interior part made of ABS warped during baking in a paint oven he used thermo mechanical analysis to demonstrate that the warpage was caused by excessive stresses originating from improper extrusion conditions. Measuring the tensile properties of thin films and coatings is also important, albeit made very difficult since the specimen cannot be easily isolated from the substrate. Expert built a micro-tensile tester that allowed us to follow the degradation in the mechanical properties of thin polyethylene films when they were exposed to UV radiation. The films lost virtually all of their strength and extensibility. However, the latter degradation was suppressed by coating the film with a UV-absorbing emulsion polymer film. Expert also addressed the issue of measuring the tensile properties of diamond-like coatings that are firmly attached to the substrate and cannot be removed for testing A partial solution was to use a relatively new instrument called a microscratch tester that was available at the Ecole Polytechnic located in. Montreal. More recently Expert has been investigating a technique known as environmental DMTA for predicting in-use lifetimes of materials such as filled polypropylene. It is unique in that the DMTA signal is obtained while the sample in submerged in a liquid.

polymer mechanical property


polymer mechanical property testing

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: Saint Louis, Missouri;  Columbia, Missouri;  Saint Charles, Missouri;  Saint Peters, Missouri;  Florissant, Missouri;  and Springfield, Illinois.

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1974   Ph.D.   Macromolecular Science   Case Western Reserve University  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1974 to 1981


Monsanto Company


Monsanto Textiles Company


Science Fellow


Expert worked on improving the dyeing behavior of acrylic fiber and polyester fiber produced for the carpet and clothing markets. His assignment was to explain dyeing rates in terms of the fiber structure and then use this information to improve spinning performance. Over his seven years in the company he achieved this goal for both fiber types. The polyester work required that Expert learn and apply modern process control statistics such as "time series analysis."

1981 to 1992


Monsanto Plastics Company


Polymer and Analytical Science Center


Senior Research Scientist


Expert was recruited inside of the Monsanto analytical community to be a charter member of the Polymer and Analytical Sciences Center (PASC), and to establish a strong skill-base in solid-state polymer characterization. The following businesses were supported: rubber-toughened plastics, fibers, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resins, paint cross-linkers, rubber chemicals, advanced materials, and research. Much of this work was achieved only after Expert convinced management to upgrade the facilities for mechanical testing and thermal analysis.

1992 to 1999


Monsanto-Expert's Firm


Advanced Performance Materials


Science Fellow


Pfizer purchased Monsanto and a new company was established in the area of advanced performance materials. Expert was able to apply the analytical and polymer processing skills he learned in the PASC assignment to the development of entirely new materials such as inherently conductive polymers or superhard coatings. Support was also given to the Agriculture Dairy business to develop syringes for injecting dairy cattle with a hormone to increase milk production.

1999 to 1999


Solutia Inc. (former chemistry businesses of Monsanto)




Science Fellow


Expert investigated the possibility that waste polyester polymer (as found in beverage bottles and fibers) could be mixed with one of Solutia's proprietary plasticizers to make a low-cost polymeric material. He had responsibility for the technical issues that emerged, such as the general assumption that crystalline polymers could not be plasticized. He also created a small-scale processing and testing lab for evaluating potential plasticizers when only small quantities were available.

1999 to




R&D for New Products


Science Fellow


Expert was part of a team to evaluate stanol, a natural product, for reduction of cholesterol uptake. Unfortunately stanol is highly crystalline and is not easily absorbed. The team developed methods for reduction of the stanol crystallinity through mixing with additives. He used thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction to generate phase diagrams, which revealed optimum compositions for maximum cholesterol uptake.

Career Accomplishments:

Expert is a member of the American Chemical Society and the Society of Plastics Engineers and a past member of the North American Thermal Analysis Society.

Professional Appointments

He is a research investigator at the University of Missouri at St.Louis working with professor Chickos in thermal analysis.

Medical/Professional Internships

Expert has always enjoyed and Monsanto has benefited from his interactions with local universities. In addition to the adjunct position described above Expert has utilized people and equipment located at U. of Minnesota (polymer processing) and U. of Mo. at St.Louis (polymer characterization).Expert has always given a seminar to the university as part of the interaction.

Publications and Patents Summary

Expert has contributed seven book chapters covering fibers, plastics, and spectroscopy of biopolymers. He has published 10 papers and has two patents.

Selected Publications and Publishers  
 - Synthetic Metals  
 - Modern Paint Coatings  
 - Journal of Applied Polymer Science  
 - Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology  
 - Polymer Bulletin  

Consulting Services:
Selected Consulting Examples:
  • Expert was asked to serve on a panel of consultants for the purpose of reviewing the polymer technology that would be required to support the new product plans of a major manufacturer of flooring and building products. The panel met over a three-year period. Each of the panel members gave a seminar. Time was allotted for individual discussions between the panel members and individual members of the technical staff. Finally, a summary was written and submitted by each panel member.
  • Monsanto had a very strong technical career path called the Fellow Program. Fellows were promoted into the program after a rigorous nomination process using the company's technical and administrative resources. Expert was nominated for the program and accepted in 1985. Fellows were expected to interact across the company in many ways, which would include consulting.
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert in Effects of speed of erasure of Markings from non-porous surfaces to assist with optimizing performance.
  • Acrylic copolymer expert for consulting on eliminating bubbles in cured acrylic fingernail application.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert in laminated windows for consulting on a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

International Experience:
Country / Region   Summary
Belgium   Expert was asked to participate in a technology exchange with the Monsanto laboratory in Belgium. He spent six months in Belgium working on improving the skill-base in polymer characterization and testing. Part of the expectations was the hiring of new professionals, which was accomplished, and quite a bit of consulting was accomplished as well.

Market Research:
Expert actively participated in small teams to evaluate new technology. For example, when Monsanto decided to pursue inherently conductive polymers as a growth item he traveled to Finland along with the rest of the team to evaluate technology that Monsanto eventually purchased. In another team experience he worked with a business development expert and a summer intern from Harvard Business School to evaluate the technical and business issues for making a special type of carbon that was used in reversible lithium batteries.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:
Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

Expert did much of the vendor selection for his laboratory in the Polymer and Analytical Sciences Center. He requested and received help from university resources such as the Polymer Processing Center at the University of Minnesota directed by Dr. Chris Macosko. Expert traveled to Minnesota one week a month to learn how to process inherently conductive polymers.

Other Skills and Services

Monsanto wanted Expert's work on the dyeing of synthetic fibers to continue after the immediate goals were met. Therefore they arranged for him to join the adjunct faculty at the School of Textiles at North Carolina State University and to serve as a co-thesis advisor for a student. Expert has always enjoyed, and Monsanto has benefited from, his interactions with local universities. He has utilized people and equipment located at the University of Minnesota (polymer processing) and the University of Missouri at St. Louis (polymer characterization). He has always given a seminar to the university as part of the interaction.

Monsanto manufactures and sells a dairy hormone that makes dairy cattle deliver more milk. The hormone is stored and delivered in plastic syringes. Over the past several years Monsanto has made significant improvements in their syringes, but these changes resulted in extensive regulatory testing. Monsanto asked Expert to assume responsibility for getting the resources in place and work with the appropriate business and technical people to meet reporting deadlines (completed technical reports, memos, etc.

His work with dyeing issues in both acrylic and polyester fiber required that he learn statistical techniques such as analysis of variance and time series analysis. He has not done this type of work in several years, but, if needed, he could take a computer-aided course.


Need the right expert?  We can help!

home       find an expert       request an expert       join our network       about us

Intota is now ORC Expert Advisory Services