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 Expert  724522

Expert in Polymer Synthesis, Property Design, Degradation, Flammability

Available for your Consulting and Expert Witness Needs

New York (NY)
Education Work History Career AccomplishmentsPublicationsConsulting Services Expert Witness Market Research

Summary of Expertise: Listed with other top experts in: 
When he joined DuPont's Carothers Laboratory he began his research on polyamide melt blends and was involved with demonstrating the concept of amorphous Tg reinforcement. As section manager at JT Baker, he became interested in high use-temperature methacrylates as well as new epoxy and other systems. At Allied Chemical Corp. as manager, he was into new polymers, polyamides, degradation, flame retardants and membranes. He was Director of the Dreyfus Laboratory at the Research Triangle Institute and then was invited to join the Polytechnic as Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. His published biochemical research dealt with steroid and colchicine metabolism. With Overberger, he was involved in termination mechanisms during styrene cationic polymerization, as well as anionic polymerization of methacrylonitrile. At DuPont, after initially working on polyoxamides, he became involved in the Tg reinforcement modification of nylon 66 by melt blends with other miscible high Tg polyamides. J.T. Baker's efforts in specialty polymer led to publications on synthesis and aging of high temperature methacrylates, as well as new epoxy resins and sulfide block copolymers. At Allied a series of high Tg and copolymer polyamides were prepared and relationships were developed in regard to their Tg and Tm ratios. lt was demonstrated that Tg(°K)/Tm(°K) was not 2/3, could be as high as 0.9, and depended on the crystallizability and crystallinity of the particular polyamide or copolyamide. Synthetic routes such as the Ritter reaction to prepare polyamides were reinvestigated. He coauthored papers on elastomeric block copolyamides. At Allied he became involved in corporate flammability studies which eventually led to several review articles as well as joint papers on the variation of the nylon 6 oxygen index as a function of DP and end groups. New polyamide-imide polymers were prepared from nitrilotriacetic acid and spiro-imides from methane tetracetic acid. His interests in flammability continued at the Dreyfus Lab and at the Polytechnic. At the latter, he published papers trying to understand the mechanisms involved in decreasing flammability. Prior to his scientific studies much of polymer flammability approaches were art instead of a science. Significantly, it was shown that certain flame retarding structures containing bromine or phosphorus when used as additives in PET compared to PET copolymerizates showed little additional advantage in decreased flammability behavior. Also PET polymer end groups, as previously demonstrated with nylon 6, affect polymer degradation and oxygen index values. A series of studies then began on modifying polymers so as to increase condensed phase reactions leading to char formation and reduced volatiles. Such studies involved styrenic copolymers, substituted aromatic polyamides, polymers with cardo-structures including epoxies, polyesters and polycarbonates, phosphazines, styryl-pyridine based epoxies and polyesters and others. It was demonstrated that condensed phase reactions could lead to increased char formation by promoting crosslinking, ring formation and/or aromatization reactios (fire smart polymers). For example, in the cardo-based phenolphthalein polymers, the lactide ring opens to give interchain crosslinking by polyester formation; ortho¬amine substituted aramides form thermally stable benzoxazole structures; styryl¬pyridines cyclize to form ring structures; styrene/acrylonitrile copolymers as well as cyano substituted phosphazines and cyano-containing aramides using a zinc Chloride catalyst form thermally stable triazine structures. He is coprincipal investigator on on NSF grant exploring nanochemical phenomena in regard to polymer flammability.

alternating copolymer


amorphous polymer


anionic polymerization


biocompatible polymer




biodegradable plastic


chemical property


engineering plastic


fire-resistant plastic


fire-retardant polymer additive


flame-retardant chemical




medical polymer selection


nylon fiber


plastic material




polysilicone chemistry


polyurethane chemistry




rubber chemistry


synthetic fiber


synthetic polymer chemistry


thermoplastic material selection

He began a series of studies on fluorine containing polymers which eventually led to his interests in miscible polymer blends and their properties. Polymers containing fluorinated ketone groups were prepared to study their hemiketal formation equilibria with alcohols and to eventually use these to separate alcohols from each other and other organic chemicals. Having made the p-trifluoromethyl ketone containing polystyrene, this was reduced to the alcohol, and then blended with H-bond accepting polymers. Only a small amount of trifluoromethylcarbinol modification was required to give single Tg phenomena blends with a large number of H-bond acceptors over a wide blend composition range. This led to synthesizing the hexafluoroisopropanol modified polystyrene and copolymers. This was even better and several mole percent modification of polystyrene was sufficient to give miscibility over the complete polymer blend composition range as shown by single Tg criteria. Studies on miscibility have now included modifications with a variety of H-bond donating groups - hexafluoroisopropanol, phenolic, carboxylic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfonic acid silanol and their interactions with stronger to weaker H-bond accepting groups, the composition between inter - and self H-bonding, and the systematic effect on a variety of properties. A mythology had developed that miscible blends had an average of the properties of the two components. This was certainly not true when H-bonding was involved and that this approach could be used to design structure and properties comparable to that previously requiring the making of a new polymer or copolymer. Some of the properties systematically modified include thermal and UV stability, glass transition temperature, water absorption, and modulus. In addition, utilizing the lower critical solution temperature phenomena of these systems, a number of new semi-IPN's have been made showing single or double Tg phenomena depending on cure temperature. Block copolymers containing one H-bonding component such as PS-poly(vinylphenol) have been shown to be "universal" compatibilizers for polystyrene blends with incompatible H-bond accepting polar polymers [e.g. p(MMA)]. More recently, we have studied surface enrichment phenomena in miscible blends leading to new concepts And uses utilizing this surface enhancement. Other significant research areas have included copolymers with and stabilization of S polymers, polymer stabilization and degradation copper complexes with poly(vinyl pyridine), photoresist materials, polyimides and phenolics



polymer alloying


polymer blend


polymer chemistry


polymer compatibility


polymer degradation


polymer flammability


polymer modification chemistry


polymer selection


polymer selection for chemical compatibility

Show Secondary and Basic Areas of Expertise
Expert may consult nationally and internationally, and is also local to the following cities: New York, New York;  Yonkers, New York;  Newark, New Jersey;  Jersey City, New Jersey;  Paterson, New Jersey;  Elizabeth, New Jersey;  Bridgeport, Connecticut;  New Haven, Connecticut;  Hartford, Connecticut;  and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Often requested
with this expert:

Polymer Additives, Agrochemicals, Flame Retardants of...
Plastics and Polymer Additives
Nylon Plastics
Polyurethane Foam Formulations/ Processes,Automotive...

Year   Degree   Subject   Institution  
1958   PhD   Polymer Science; Chemistry   Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn  
1951   MS   Chemistry   New York University  
1949   BS   Chemistry   Brooklyn College  

Work History:
Years   Employer   Department   Title   Responsibilities

1974 to


(Undisclosed University)


Chemistry and Chemical Eng.,Polymer Res.Inst.


Professor; prior Director etc


He was head of chem. dept, joint app't with Chem. Eng., Director -Polymer Research Inst., Dean of Arts and Sciences; and University Research Prof.

1973 to 1974


Research Triangle Inst.


Dreyfus Lab.




Directing polymer contract research

1968 to 1972


Allied Chemical


Corporate Res. Lab.




Directed Corporate Polymer Synthesis and Flammability Research

1962 to 1968


J,T, Baker Chemical Co.


R & D


Section Head


Supervised specialty polymer syntheses, testing, characterization

1958 to 1962




Carothers Res. Lab.


Research Chemist


Synthesis of new polymers, copolymers, polymer blends, characterization, fibers, nylons etc,

Career Accomplishments:

ACS, AIC, AIChE,AAAs, Sigma Xi, NATAS, NY Acad. Sci; SPE

Professional Appointments

ACS Pres.,25years an Editor of J. Polym. Sci., Advisory Board of Several polymer journals and C&EN


Mark Medal, Austrian Chemistry and Technology Inst,;PJ Flory Polymer Ed. Award, Polym. Div. ACS; International Education Award, SPE; et al. Fellow--SPE; AAAS; AIC ; NATAS. A Sigma Xi Research Award

Publications and Patents Summary

Over 250 refereed scientific publications, 5 patents, 4 edited books, editor for 25 years of J. Polymer Sci.

Government Experience:
Years   Agency   Role   Description
1953 to 1955   US ARMY   Private   Bichemical research on steroids and stress

Consulting Services:
Recent Client Requests:
  • Expert of nylon 66 for consulting on polymer synthesis of Nylon 66.
  • Polymer extrusion expert for consulting on improvement of existing polyethylene-based compound.
  • Polyurethane expert for consulting on efficient formulation of coating fabric.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your expert consulting needs.  Expert is available for consulting to corporate, legal and government clients.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Expert Witness:
Expert Witness Experience Summary:
Have expertise in trial testimony and giving depositions
Recent Litigation Client Requests:
  • Expert in polyether fibers needed for consultation regarding a nylon strap that "let loose" which was holding a beam.
  • Chemist expert in polyurethane cross linking for product failure litigation.
  • Textiles expert witness for consulting on flammability of double-stitch heavy canvas outdoor tarpaulins.
  • Clothing material expert for consulting on coveralls caught on fire.
Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding expert testimony, litigation consulting and support, forensic services, or any related expert witness services.  A few litigation needs include product liability, personal injury, economic loss, intellectual property (patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright), and insurance matters.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Market Research:
Years of R&D experience in solving practical problems in prior positions and as a consultant to many companies.

Click the green button above to contact Expert for a free initial screening call regarding your marketing research, industry research, and company research needs.  For research needs involving multiple experts or secondary research, a Research Director can be assigned to coordinate the work into a custom report for you as a potentially quicker and more cost effective alternative to doing this work yourself or hiring a boutique consultancy.  Remember, your initial screening call to speak with Expert is free.

Additional Skills and Services:

Teach polymer courses

Supplier and Vendor Location and Selection

General knowledge

Other Skills and Services

Have held many professional society positions, have received several polymer related and teaching awards; Fellow of SPE, NATAS, AAAS, AIC; former ACS President


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